Women with FGM typically report sexual dysfunction and dyspareunia

Women with FGM typically report sexual dysfunction and dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse) and this becomes higher with type III FGM [14]. Although we could not report any case of AIDS in this study, it has been suggested that FGM is related to a high incidence of AIDS in some parts of Africa, since sexual intercourse with a circumcised female is conductive to an exchange of blood [14].
Many women in this study requested reinfibulation (restoration of the infibulations) after giving birth. In Sudan, this is known as “El-Adel” (re-circumcision) [15,16]. Vanja Bergrren writes that this is in effect mimics virginity [17,18]. On the contrary many young ladies came seeking advice for possible defibulation, which is a surgical technique to reverse the closure of the vaginal opening after type III FGM. Pierre Foldes and Marci Bowers used intact clitoral tissue from inside women\’s bodies to form a new carboxypeptidase [19].
Sudan has tried to eradicate female genital mutilation since 1946 to little avail. But now women\’s health group has taken the crusade in their hand in an effort to subvert the practice. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) are training midwives to counsel mothers about the dangers of FGM. In the year 2006 Sudan Household Survey, the most extensive population measurement to date reflects FGM in 75–80% of females in the Northern part of Sudan. In poorer areas like Darfur, the survey showed that 40–60% are afflicted [20].
Many work shops were held in Sudan to end the practice of FGM. The Sudan Medical Council banned this practice by any medical profession, and the issue was discussed in the Parliament and the consensus was to ban it altogether. Several African countries have enacted legislation against it. In Mauritania, where almost all the girls in minority communities undergo FGM, 34 Islamic Scholars singed a Fetwa in Jan 2010 banning the practice [21]. In Egypt the health ministry banned FGM in 2007 despite pressure from some Islamic groups. Al-Azhar Supreme Council of Islamic Research, the highest religious authority in Egypt, issued a statement that FGM had no basis in core Islamic Law [22,23]. AS of July 2011, 6236 communities in seven countries abandoned FGM [24].
All the organizations working to end FGM should work hard through simple media that can be accessed by the small minorities. The major role should be played by medical professionals, especially nurses, midwives and the other paramedical staff, the religious scholars to teach mothers about the grave complications that can follow FGM [25,26].

Conclusions

Introduction
Sex is one of the basic drives. Impairment of this drive/sexual functioning can have a profound effect on the persons’ quality of life and other aspects of functioning. Sexual behavior represents a very complex and interesting interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement represents a complex interaction of central and peripheral nervous systems, modified by various psychological and physical factors [1]. Masters and Johnson carboxypeptidase [2] introduced the idea of human sexual response including excitement, orgasm and resolution phases. Later Kaplan [3] added the desire phase. The desire phase reflects motivations, drives and personality and is characterized by sexual fantasies and the desire to have sexual activity, and in the female is controlled mainly by androgens particularly testosterone secreted by the ovaries. Excitement phase is a result of sexual stimulation either physical on psychological. Sexual excitement in the female can be observed in a generalized bodily reaction of myotonia and vasocongestion of the clitoris which is enlarged together with the uterus, expansion and ballooning of the vagina and vaginal lubrication. The clitoris is heavily endowed with nerve endings responding the touch, its stimulation can trigger an orgasm. But orgasm in the female is a complex central nervous system function and the clitoris is only a small part of the structure responding to stimulation including the vaginal introitus, the anterior wall with endings responding to deep pressure which indicates that stimulation through the clitoris is a part of the organs contributing to the total response.