VE-822 br Results The age of

Results
The age of pediatric urolithiasis patients at diagnosis ranged from 8 months to 15 years old with an average of 7.86±4 years (Mean±SD). 81 were boys and 23 girls, while the sex ratio was 3.5:1 boys to girls.
Stones were located in the upper urinary tract among 62.5% of cases (kidney: 47.1%, ureter: 15.4%), and were mostly found in children over 5 years old, and in the lower tract in 37.5% cases (bladder: 30.8%; urethra: 6.7%) (Fig. 1).
The stone sizes were also determined by echography and scanner varied between 4 and 40mm (Fig. 2).
At the time of diagnosis, 19 patients (18.3%) had positive urine cultures; E. coli was the most commonly encountered microorganism. It represents 47.4% of species. P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter genus represented 10.5%.

Discussion
While considered to be rare in children, several studies suggest that urolithiasis is becoming more common in pediatric patients [4] and it remains a common health problem in some parts of the world, such as Turkey [5], Pakistan, and Afghanistan [6,7].
The prevalence of urolithiasis varies according to geographic areas and risk factors [8].
More recent reports suggest that urinary calculi are being recognized with an increasing frequency [9,10].
In Morocco, unlike in adult patients, epidemiological studies in children are fewer [11,12].
In our data, a prevalence of 0.83% of childhood urolithiasis was calculated, which is less than the prevalence in the United States which was estimated to be 5.2% [13], whereas prevalence in a Turkish population under the age of 14 was 17% [14]. Annual incidence has been estimated to be 1.8 per 100,000 children per year in Kuwait [15].
A male predominance was confirmed with a sex ratio of 3.5. This ratio is comparable to that given by Oussama et al. [11] in Middle Atlas and is higher than the one observed in France [16].
In our study 62.5% of stones were located in the upper urinary tract. This result was consistent with the results of recent studies in developed countries [17,18].
According to the literature, the presenting signs and symptoms of pediatric stone disease are different from those in adults [19]. They have varied presentations including nonspecific pain located in the abdomen, flank, or VE-822 which may be confused with colic pain. In this study, those symptoms were present in 38.75% of patients. This value is higher than that of Turkish study [20]; and these symptoms were most commonly presented in Children having more than 5 years old [21,22].
Macroscopic or microscopic hematuria can occur in up to 90% of children with urolithiasis [23]. In our series, Revertant represented 28.75% of symptoms.
Urethral and urethral stones can cause obstruction that leads to pain [24,25], we showed that urinary obstruction was present in 17.5% of patients.
A total of 5% of children had associated anatomical abnormalities of urinary tract, whereas in a Turkish study [20] they were present in 8.9% of children.
Unlike the developed countries where traditional surgery was replaced several years ago with non-invasive techniques, our study revealed that the open surgery remains the most frequently used treatment of urolithiasis in children. This is due to the inadequacy of the ESWL in Hassan II University-Hospital center to the size of the children. The same problems are mentioned by other studies carried out in Morocco [12,26].

Conclusion

Ethical committee approval

Conflict of interest

Funding

Authors contributor

Acknowledgments

Introduction
Stone disease is endemic in Pakistan and constitutes 60% of the urological workload [1,2]. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the treatment of choice for majority of urinary calculi, especially those smaller than 2cm in size [3,4]. However, the efficacy of ESWL as a primary treatment for lower pole stones remains controversial. The problem in lower pole stones is fragment retention rather than stone disintegration. One important factor that predicts the success of ESWL in lower pole stones is the calyceal anatomy [5–10]. The lower pole infundibular (IF) length, infundibular width (IW) and the infundibulopelvic (IP) angle on intravenous urography (IVU) have been shown to impact stone clearance [6,8,10–13]. Among these radiological parameters, the definition of IP angle has varied among the studies and remains problematic and controversial [14]. Measurement of the angle by Elbahnasy depended on fixed points and hence provided more consistent landmarks [6]. He used ureteropelvic axis rather than pelvic axis and vertical axis of the lower infundibulum. The use of ureteropelvic axis rather than pelvic axis resulted in a more acute angle, thus a lower cut off point was advisable. Different investigators used different cut-off values of the IP angle resulting in conflicting results [4,8–14]. However, the mean angle in many studies was around 40–50 degrees rather than 90 degrees found in the original resin endocast study of 146 cadaveric kidneys [4,5]. Therefore, we set a cut-off point at 45 degrees to see if this cut-off value is useful.

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the gallbladder was

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the gallbladder was first reported in 1907 by Landsteiner [4]. Since then, less than 100 further cases have been reported in the English literature [1]. Like gallbladder adenocarcinoma, gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma is most common in women. The female/male ratio is between 3.25:1 and 5:1 [1,3]. The age at diagnosis ranges from 45 to 91 years old [3]. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is rare at sites such as the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and gallbladder, and occurs more commonly in the uterus where it is known as a malignant mixed Müllerian tumor [5].

Case report
A 52-year-old female patient presented with postprandial epigastric pain that had persisted for 1 year. The pain was mild and improved after antacid treatment. She was seen at our hospital after being diagnosed with a hepatic tumor at a local clinic. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed one mixed echogenic tumor approximately 9.5 cm from the gallbladder sac and extending to S4–5 of the liver. The common bile duct was dilated to 1.4 cm (Fig. 1). Liver function tests and total bilirubin levels were within the normal range. However, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was elevated to 60.9 U/mL. A follow-up abdominal computed tomography (CT) confirmed a 7.5 cm sized gallbladder cancer with liver invasion (Fig. 2), consistent with clinical Stage III cancer according to the TNM system (tumor-node-metastasis classification system).
Cholecystectomy and segmental hepatectomy of segments S4b and S5 were performed. An 8 cm, friable gallbladder mass had grown outward and involved the liver (Fig. 3). Pathologically, the tumor was a sarcomatoid carcinoma in Stage III (Fig. 4). The surgical margin was free of vessel or cystic duct invasion. The tumor had an adenocarcinoma component with some glandular structures and showed positive staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and a sarcoma component with spindle Ro 31-8220 methanesulfonate manufacturer staining positively for vimentin.
The postoperative CA 19-9 level decreased to 28.5 U/mL. Epigastric pain improved and the patient did not report any other discomfort. However, 3 months later, the follow-up abdominal CT revealed a peritoneal, poorly enhancing soft tissue mass over the anterior of the liver and variably sized nodules on the omentum (Fig. 5). A CT-guided biopsy confirmed metastatic peritoneal sarcomatoid carcinoma. The patient received chemotherapy consisting of three courses of cisplatin (30 mg/m2) and fluorouracil (2600 mg/m2). The patient died 6 months after diagnosis.

Discussion
The risk factors for gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma are not clear. Risk factors for gallbladder carcinoma include adenomyomatosis, anomalous union of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system, cholelithiasis, chronic Salmonella typhi infection, a first-degree relative with gallbladder cancer, and exposure to carcinogens such as methylcholanthrene, o-aminoazotoluene and nitrosamines. Our patient did not have any of these risk factors. Patients with gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma often present with nonspecific symptoms and signs such as abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia, fever, jaundice, weight loss, or a palpable mass [1,6]. Varying CA 19-9 levels were noted among previous gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma cases [1,7]. Our patient was diagnosed at a late stage when Figure eight presented with abdominal pain and had an elevated CA 19-9 level that decreased after radical resection.
Because gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma is poorly understood, a definite staging system is not available. Most case series or reports are staged by the TNM classification of gallbladder carcinoma. The most important treatment is surgical resection. Our patient underwent a radical resection; adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy were not used due to a lack of evidence supporting a therapeutic benefit [6,8]. The use of fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin for adjuvant therapy was previously documented in another case report [7]. In that case, the patient was diagnosed with Stage II disease and was still alive 6 months postoperatively.

br Experimental procedure The starting materials were commercial powders of

Experimental procedure
The starting materials were commercial powders of Co (99wt.% purity, ∼28μm), Zr (99.5wt.% purity, ∼48μm) and B4C (≥95wt.% purity, ∼3.5μm). Samples were prepared with Zr and B4C at a ratio corresponding to the stoichiometry of ZrC-2ZrB2 plus 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50wt.% Co in the Co-Zr-B4C system. The blended powders were dry mixed in a stainless steel container using ZrO2 balls at a low speed (∼50rpm) for 8h. Subsequently, the powder mixtures were placed in cylindrical die (22mm in diameter) and uniaxially pressed into compacts with about 65% theoretical density. The CS experiments were performed in a stainless steel glove box full of Ar atmosphere. Briefly, the compact was placed on a 2-mm-thick graphite plate on top of a tungsten electrode. The compact was ignited by an arc heating, which was generated by passing a strong current (60A).
The phase evolution path of the Co-Zr-B4C system was measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) (Model 200 F3 Maia, Netach, Bavaria, Germany) with the protection of flowing Ar gas (flow rate: 40ml/min). A small amount of loose powder mixtures (∼35mg) was held in an alumina crucible and heated to a designated temperature at the heating rate of 30°C/min. Furthermore, in the glove box full of Ar, the copper-mold-aided combustion front quenching experiment for rectangular compacts in dimensions of 65mm×10mm×2mm was conducted.
The phase constituents of the DSC and CS products were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) (D/Max 2500PC Rigaku, Japan) using Cu-Kα radiation source, while the phase compositions in the different regions of the quenched sample were detected by X-ray micro-diffraction (D8 Discover with GADDS, Bruker AXS, Germany) using an 800μm beam diameter. The microstructures of the CS and quenched specimens were examined by field emission scanning Madecassoside microscopy (FESEM) (Model S-4800, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) (Model Link-ISIS, Oxford, England).

Results and discussion

Conclusions

Introduction
Processing of macroporous ceramics from colloidal suspension of powders using suitable pore templates is well known [1–5]. Polymeric foams, fugitive solid particles and liquid droplets are used as pore templates for the preparation of macroporous ceramics. In the polymeric foam template method, a ceramic powder suspension coated on the surfaces of the webs of polymer foam is dried, heat treated to remove the polymer foam template and then sintered to produce the ceramic replica of the polymer foam [5–7]. This method produces highly porous reticulated ceramics. In the solid fugitive template based method, fugitive particles such as carbon particles, wheat particles, polymer beads, rice particles, polymer short fibres, crystals of organic molecules, etc. incorporated in a ceramic powder suspension are consolidated to produce the green body [8–16]. The fugitive particles in the green body assembly are subsequently removed by slow heating before sintering. The void space created by the removal of the fugitive particle remains as pore in the sintered ceramic. Though this method is quite simple and has very good control over the pore size, it produces macroporous ceramics having relatively low porosity. In the third method, immiscible liquid (oil) droplets are dispersed in a ceramic precursor sol or ceramic powder suspension using a suitable emulsifying agent to form an emulsion [17–23]. The emulsion is then set by gelation of the sol or ceramic powder suspension. The gelled emulsion body is dried, oil removed and sintered to produce the macroporous ceramics. Use of liquid droplet as pore template instead of fugitive solid particles provides many advantages. Primarily, the uniform dispersion of the immiscible liquid droplets Madecassoside in an aqueous slurry medium using an emulsifying agent could be obtained by simple stirring. The pore size could be manipulated by controlling the droplet size, which can be obtained by adjusting the emulsifying agent concentration and mixing speed. In addition, loading of liquid template even higher than 74vol.% of the emulsion could be possible. Such emulsions are known as high internal phase emulsions [21]. This leads to macroporous ceramics with very high porosity and highly interconnected pore structure compared to that obtained by fugitive solid particle template method.

Holland proposed the genetic algorithm reproducing the Darwin

Holland proposed the genetic algorithm reproducing the Darwin’s ack1 inhibitor theory based on the survival of the fittest. Later in the same year, De Jong [16] applied GA to optimization problems. Goldberg [17] coded the basic GA implementation by imitating the mode of the biological gene string: (i) 0/1 binary codes were used to express variables; (ii) a fitness value evaluated following some criterion and then assigned to each individual; (iii) a population-based search was adopted.
In the evolution process, the rule of “survival of the fittest” was applied to individuals by performing simple operations on gene-string codes. The operators used to generate new populations were selection, crossover and mutation. The crossover operation creates a new generation of individuals by mixing gene strings. The mutation operation modifies genes in the string to provide the population with sufficient proliferation or diversification. When there are no optimization constraints and gradient information, the above-mentionedalgorithmissuitableforparallel computing. Goldberg [18] developed the Bit-string GA (BGA) to explore the global optimization. BGA had a robust global optimization capability but required too much computation time and was not very efficient in high-dimensional or high-accuracy problems. Furthermore, the Hamming distance between two adjacent decimal integers may become very large when expressed in binary codes.
Cultural Algorithm was proposed by Reynolds in 1994 [19]. It is one kind of population-based algorithm equipped with the concept of collective intelligence. The CA imitates the lineal evolution of socio-cultural transition, which prevailed in the 19th century, to be the main operation mechanism. First, this algorithm makes use of the database built by it to guide each cultural species’ search. It then improves the cultural species through evolution. Last, it acquires the optimal solution of the problem.
The scientific approach attempts to arrange phenomena in orderly categories, to recognize consistent interrelationships between them, to establish laws of regularities, and to make formulations that have predictive value. On the other hand, the historical approach research pathway is more concerned with the occurrence of phenomena in time and place, the uniqueness of each constellation, and the ethos or value systems that characterize culture areas [20]. The lineal evolutionism proposed by the culture researchers in the middle of 19th century, the multi-lineal evolutionism introduced by Steward in 20th century [20], and the sociobiology published by Wilson et al. all interpret the behaviors of socio-cultural transition from the point of view of natural science [21, 22].
Wilson and other socio-biologists also incorporated the logical thinking of natural science into social science, and then proposed socio-biologism to interpret the process of social cultural evolution in a more reasonable way. Socio-biologists bring genetic rules algorithm into the process of cultural transition. They consider that such behaviors as communication, infection, and learning among cultures are similar to the crossover and the mutation advocated by genetic theories. They also believe that the competition among cultures is just like that among species, and that new cultures equipped with competitive advantages will take the place of those with lower competitiveness to form a new cultural population. This echoes Steward’s multi-linealism [20] and the prediction of the course of cultural evolution transition.

Cultural Evolution Algorithm (CEA)
This paper proposes a cultural evolution algorithm using Steward’s [20] socio-cultural integration theory as its system thinkings. The main difference from Reynolds’ [19] cultural algorithm is that the CEA aims to fit the phenomenon of socio-cultural transition, imitates the concept of diverse cultural population evolution, and includes such behaviors as communication, infection, and learning among cultural species. There are two mechanisms that map this system thinkings into information search scheme. They are the way of coding or describing an individual that represents a problem in a population and the population’s innovation mode. The cultural species’ evolution modes can be categorized into four types, group consensus (or so-called mainstream value), individual learning, innovative learning, and self-improvement. The corresponding mathematical models for these four evolutionary modes are described respectively as follows.

M Calonder came up with the Binary Robust Independent Elementary

M. Calonder came up with the Binary Robust Independent Elementary Features (BRIEF) (Calonder et al., 2010) algorithm. Since detectors used in algorithms developed in the past, such as SURF, could be used in search of initial keypoints and scales, Edward Rosten proposed in 2010 the FAST corner detector, while Elmar Mair also put forward the AGAST corner detector. Both algorithms were not only able to search initial keypoints quickly, but also reliable and capable of effectively reducing the cost of initial computation; they were therefore suitable to provide a good foundation for establishment of subsequent descriptors, while different image scale changes could also be identified by using integral images. They proposed the use of binary descriptors to break through the bottleneck encountered in studies on subsequent descriptor computation so that the cost of matching and descriptor computation could be reduced.
ORB (Rublee et al., 2006) is an algorithm proposed by Microsoft researcher E. Rublee in 2010. The paper was primarily to suggest ways to improve the defect of lack of rotational invariance of BRIEF, its initial keypoint filtering mechanism, and calculation of different keypoint directions. The keypoint search and scale changes could still be conducted in reference to detection methods adopted in algorithms developed in the past. In the beginning, the FAST method was applied to locate the keypoints in an image. The keypoints located were filtered to select the most reliable keypoints. Then, future directions are calculated in accordance with the intensity centroid of each of the selected keypoint to establish binary descriptors.
S. Leutenegger presented Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK) (Leutenegger et al., 2011) in 2012. The main contribution of the paper was the approach of incorporation of AGAST detectors to locate keypoints with scale invariance and improve descriptors effectiveness. In the paper, it parp apoptosis pathway was described how AGAST detectors were able to locate keypoints effectively and reliably and the outcome and speed were at least as outstanding as those of FAST detectors. Also mentioned in the paper was a way to find reliable keypoints under different scales and an approach different from the methods adopted in past literature to establish DAISY descriptors to make the descriptors more robust.
In 2012, A. Alahi proposed FAST Retina Keypoint (FREAK) (Alahi et al., 2012) to establish descriptors based on the concept behind the human retina and claimed that the approach could lead to better results than BRISK, SURF and SIFT. Before performing the two descriptor matching, stages, the first section was first examined to see if it met the threshold and, if so, the matching for the second section was then conducted; thus, the cost of computation could be reduced.
Other papers released, including those by Ke and Sukthankar (2004), Dalal and Triggs (2005), and Mikolajczyk and Schmid (2005), were all related to feature descriptor algorithms. K. Mikolajczyk also published another paper in 2008 to discuss the comments about descriptors (Rosten, Porter & Drummond, 2010).

The proposed method

Tracking initialization
This section elaborates on the second half of the real-time deformation estimation framework that we propose. The first half focuses on detection in order to identify the corresponding relationship between the template and the target in continuous images. In earlier experiments we have discovered that some problems exist if only detection is applied to complete real-time deformation estimation, such as instability of match keypoints on the template and the target. This instability means if the template keypoint coordinates (5, 5) are matched with the target keypoint coordinates (10, 10) at time t, at t+1 they can be matched with the target keypoint coordinates (100, 100) because deformation can occur on the target surface as a result of rotation, scaling and angle of view of the target in continuous images. This makes detection difficult. Since we hope to use these matches as the control points in deformation estimation, the match keypoints have to be stable.

The absolute stand density of the four plots ranged from

The absolute stand density of the four plots ranged from 435 trees/ha to 767 trees/ha with 556 trees/ha mean stand density being lower compared with densities reported from the Kalarayan hills (640–986 trees/ha, Kadavul and Parthasarathy 1999b), EG of northern Andhra Pradesh (639–836 trees/ha, Reddy et al 2011). However, the tree density is comparable with other tropical forests of Kalakkad, Western Ghats (575–855 trees/ha, Parthasarathy 1999), Anamalais (270–673 tree/ha, Ayyappan and Parthasarathy 1999), Gandhmaran hills, EG (565–671 trees/ha, Sahu et al 2010), Brazil (420–777 trees/ha, Campbell et al 1992), Sulawesi (408 trees/ha, Whitmore and Sidiyasa 1986). Tree density can be affected by natural calamities, anthropogenic activities, and soil properties.
The basal area of trees in northern EG forests (mean 25.82 m2/ha, range 12.98–33.63) is much higher than the range (1.31–13.78 m2/ha, Sagar and Singh 2006). The reported basal areas from other studies include 7–23 m2/ha from certain dry forest communities in India (Jha and Singh 1990), 10.79–20.44 m2/ha for tropical dry evergreen forests of southern India (Parthasarathy and Sethi 1997) and 3.9–16.7 m2/ha for Miombo woodlands, Tanzania (Backeus et al 2006). The values are less comparable with those reported from New Caledonia (47–49.5 m2/ha, Jaffre and Veillon 1990) and fan-palm dominated forests of east coast peninsular Malaysia (25.3–48.6 m2/ha, Nizam et al 2013). The differences in the basal area of tree layers among the study plots may be due to differences in altitude, species composition, age of trees, and extent of disturbances and successional strategies of the stands. Girth class frequency showed that the population structure of trees exhibited in the study plots are in harmony with other forest stands (Bhadra et al 2010; Sahu et al 2010). Tree distribution across different girth pmsf revealed how well the growing forest is utilizing functional and structural resources. The diameter distribution of trees has been often used to represent the population structure of forests (Rao et al 1990).
Biodiversity indices are generated to bring the diversity and abundance of species in different habitats to a similar scale for comparison and the higher the value, the greater the species richness. The higher values of the diversity indices revealed a forest with high tree species diversity and abundance (Adekunle et al 2013). Shannon–Weiner values for tree species diversity in the present study (3.76–3.96) ranged between 0. 81 and 4.1 (Visalakshi 1995; Sahu et al 2012; Sundarapandian and Swamy 2000). The extent of dominance (Simpson’s index) in the present study is within a range of 0.21–1.34 in other forests (Knight 1975; Visalakshi 1995; Lalfakwma et al 2009). The Margalef index within the range of 4.54–23.41 for tropical forests reported by earlier workers (Mishra et al 2005; Kumar et al 2010; Sathish et al 2013). Biodiversity is necessary to assess ecosystem health because it affects key ecological processes. Woody plant species are key components of the forest ecosystem and are responsible for forest architecture and influences the overall composition of forest communities. Documenting the patterns of tree diversity and their distribution provides a good database, useful for management measures in these forests. A comprehensive approach to forest management is needed for the conservation of dominant tree species that are necessary for the canopy formation as well as maintaining the ecological balance of the forests. Tree species density, distribution, and population structure analyzed in this study should be useful to the conservation researchers and scientists and also to the forest managers for effective management of the forest conservation. The preservation of these forests is crucial not only for conservation of their rich biodiversity, but also for meeting the basic needs of the local population. Therefore, this paper calls for an urgent conservation plan to conserve biological diversity.

There was a statistically significant positive

There was a statistically significant positive correlation between sleep deficit and age (p<0.001), of moderate degree (r=0.337), showing a gradual increase in sleep deficit as age increased (Fig. 1). When considering age, the value of CASQ increased gradually with age: 36±5.7 for 10-year-olds and 41.3±6.2 for 17-year-olds, showing a correlation between the variables age and the CASQ value (p<0.001) of mild degree (r=0.244). The sample of adolescents aged 18 years was not shown as it SCR 7 was not representative (n=8).
To assess sleepiness, the authors chose to use the CASQ as the dependent variable. The mean score achieved by the students in CASQ, 38 points, was used as the cutoff value for the division between groups with presence or absence of sleepiness. Numerical variables were compared with the six variables that compose the SDSC questionnaire, in addition to the hours of sleep during the week, hours of sleep on weekends, sleep deficit, and age. There was a significant association between higher values of the SDSC questionnaire score for disorders of excessive somnolence (p=0.008) and sleep hyperhidrosis (p=0.006), increased sleep restriction during the week (p=0.005), and older age (p<0.001) in the group with excessive sleepiness. The assessed categorical variables were school (public vs. private), school shift, gender, obesity and physical activity. None of the variables showed significant difference between the two groups (Table 2). The presence of chronic diseases (p=0.34) was not significant.
When the correlation between the different variables and sleepiness (CASQ) was assessed, there was a positive correlation with disorders of excessive somnolence (r=0.25, p<0.001), sleep hyperhidrosis (r=0.23, p<0.001), age (r=0.24, p<0.001) and sleep deficit (r=0.11, p=0.02). There was a negative correlation between sleepiness and the amount of sleep in hours during the week (r=−0.21, p<0.001) and there was no correlation between sleepiness and amount of sleep on weekends (r=−0, 08, p=0.10). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with sleepiness in adolescents. Statistically significant values indicate the older age of students and higher scores on the SDSC sleep hyperhidrosis variable as factors for worse degree of excessive sleepiness (Table 3).
Discussion
Based on the present results, age and sleep hyperhidrosis had a statistically significant effect on daytime sleepiness in the studied adolescent population. The values found when applying the CASQ in Brazilian adolescents (38.6±6) showed to be slightly higher than those found by Spilsbury et al. in the United States at the questionnaire validation (35.2±11) and in 314 Indian adolescents, in whom the mean value obtained was 36±9.
An alarming finding was that 39% of these adolescents had a sleep deficit greater than 2h and, therefore, were subject to numerous complications of sleep deprivation. These sleep deprivation values followed the trend of Portuguese data, in which 74% of the assessed individuals slept less than 8h on weekdays and 33% did so on weekends. There is also a direct association between age and daytime sleepiness (Fig. 1). The authors speculate that, with increasing age, the adolescents, despite the little sleep, prioritize social and leisure activities, in addition to losing precious time during displacement in the urban environment. Also, the finding of increased sleep deficit in private school students appears to be associated with the fact that the private school sample have students mostly attending the morning shift. The importance of sleep deprivation has been demonstrated not only in the West, but also in recent data from China, where an intervention took place in a primary school with a delay in the start of school activities of 30 and 60min, resulting in better performance of students.
Another associated factor, sleep hyperhidrosis, is a complaint that interferes with the quality of sleep, thus contributing to sleepiness. It can be described in a large number of differential diagnoses, from infectious diseases to neuroendocrine disorders, but Unidirectional replication is also a very common complaint in patients with OSAS and other respiratory diseases in childhood.

Introduction This research builds on

Introduction
This research builds on our research [1,2] on galvanostatic anodic polarisation of (i) high purity (HP) Mg in 3.5% NaCl saturated with Mg(OH)2[1], and (ii) AZ31B in 0.01 M Na2SO4 saturated with Mg(OH)2[2]. That research [1,2] concluded, (1) that the uni-positive Mg+ 2b3a inhibitors Mg corrosion mechanism predictions are consistent with both main manifestations of the negative difference effect (NDE), namely (i) the amount of Mg2+ produced by an applied anodic current is greater than predicted by the Faraday Law, and (ii) the amount of hydrogen increases with increasing applied anodic current; and (2) self-corrosion caused more weight loss than the applied current density throughout the anodic polarisation curve for Mg. Those papers [1,2] built on prior research on Mg corrosion [3–16].
Our prior papers [1,2] considered a Mg anode in a de-aerated electrolyte subjected to an applied anodic galvanostatic current density, iapplied, equivalent to the corresponding flux of electrons, N (mmol cm−2 s−1), given bywhere F is the Faraday (96,500C mol−1).
The applied anodic galvanostatic current density is given by:where i is the rate of the anodic partial reaction per unit area, and i is the rate of the cathodic partial reaction per unit area.
The anodic partial reaction is assumed [4–6] to occur in two steps (3) and (4). The second step assumes that some fraction, k, undergoes electrochemical anodic oxidation to the equilibrium Mg++ ion. The complement, 1−k, of uni-positive Mg+ ions reacts chemically by reaction (5) to produce the stable Mg++ ion and H2. The two anodic partial reactions are balanced by the cathodic partial reaction (6).
Summation of Eqs. (3)–(6) gives the following overall reaction:
If the anodic and cathodic current densities obey Eq. (2), it was shown [5] thatwhere N (mmol cm−2 s−1) is the rate of Mg metal dissolution, and N (mmol cm−2 s−1) is the average rate of hydrogen evolution. Eq. (8) is valid even though part of the corrosion reaction is chemical and not electrochemical.
The current research aims to extend the prior work [1,2] to WE43. In particular, to study anodic polarisation curves for WE43 using the new plug-in specimens [9].

Materials and methods

Results
Fig. 1 presents typical galvanostatic potential–time curves for WE43. All curves rapidly attained steady state conditions. For an applied current density of 0.01 A cm−2, the curve was irregular attributed to breakdown and repair of the surface film. Fig. 2 presents galvanostatic polarisation curves (GPC) with IR compensation, for WE43. The galvanostatic polarisation curve plots the measured potential at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h at each applied current density from Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 presents hydrogen evolution data during the galvanostatic testing of WE43. The volume of hydrogen, V, increased linearly with increasing time. Fig. 4 presents the average hydrogen evolution rate, N, plotted against the average weight loss rate, N, during galvanostatic testing for WE43. On these logarithmic axes, there was a linear relationship:
Fig. 5 presents two times of average weight loss rate, 2N, plotted against the flux of electrons, N, corresponding to the applied galvanostatic current density, iapplied, during galvanostatic testing. On these logarithmic axes, there was an initial slow increase of 2N, and thereafter there was a linear relationship:
The red line drawn on Fig. 5 is a plot of

Discussion

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Introduction
Between all microstructural parameters of crystalline metallic material, grain size has important influences on the physical and mechanical properties. Hall–Petch relationship correlates the strength to grain size as below,where the is the friction stress, d is the average grain size, is the yield stress and is constant [1]. Recently, severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes such as Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) [2], Accumulative roll bonding [3,4], Cyclic Extrusion Compression (CEC) [5], High Pressure Torsion (HPT) [6] and Friction Stir Processing (FSP) [7] has been developed to improve the microstructure and mechanical properties through grain refinement and a proper texture development. ECAP has had more interests of all SPD processes since it can be applied to wide range of materials, repeated for several passes to impose higher strains and able to get industrialized [8]. ECAP has generally carried out on the bars or rods with circular or square cross section; therefore, there is the need for secondary rolling process in order to make usable flat specimens.

WebLogo was used to align and display protein sequences

WebLogo 3 was used to align and display protein sequences (http://code.google.com/p/weblogo/) (Crooks et al., 2004).

Results

Conclusion
The sequence EPxYAxV (where x is any amino acid) is significantly underrepresented in mammalian proteomes (Selbach et al., 2009). However, the number of mammalian proteins containing EPIYA-like motifs is not as low as it was proposed before (Xu et al., 2010; this paper). This difference may be due to explanation of “EPIYA-like motif”. In the current study, we identified 50 mammalian proteins which contain bacterial EPIYA (or -like) motifs. Our results showed that most of mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) motifs were not tyrosine phosphorylated at EPIYA (or -like) motifs and thereby, they are “unfunctional EPIYA (or -like) motifs”. Since, bacterial roscovitine proteins containing same EPIYA (or -like) motifs were tyrosine phosphorylated. In this regard, we found that out of 11 functional EPIYA (or -like) motifs in mammalian proteins, six proteins were predicted to be naturally unfolded. Moreover, out of 39 proteins containing unfunctional EPIYA (or -like) motif, 32 proteins were predicted to be ordered at EPIYA (or -like) segments. Therefore, in mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) motif, tyrosine phosphorylation at unfolded EPIYA (or -like) segments is more frequent than ordered EPIYA (or -like) segments. Although, bacterial effector proteins were continuously tyrosine phosphorylated by host tyrosine kinases which seems to be due to unfolded nature of bacterial EPIYA (or -like) motifs. Our results also raise a possibility that EPIYA (or -like) motifs can be potential regulators of SFK members in the cell machinery. On the other hand, SFK activity can be directly regulated via their own EPIYA-like motifs (EPIYI and EPQYQ) or via indirect feedback by functional EPIYA (or -like) motifs containing proteins (including mammalian proteins and pathogenic effector proteins). During long-term co-evolution with hosts, pathogenic bacteria enable to employ host key regulators such as EPIYA (or -like) to better colonization. These key regulators were expanded via recombination (Furuta et al., 2011; Majazki et al., 2013). However, in the mammalian hosts, such key regulators are mostly unfunctional with low copy number. Furthermore, it seems that intramolecular interactions in mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) allowed the EPIYA (or -like) segments to be as unaccessed sites. Notably, SFKs have pleiotropic functions in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes. SFKs are highly conserved across the animal kingdom, and regulation of SFKs is a prerequisite for evolution of multicellular animals (Segawa et al., 2006; Okada, 2012). Our findings showed that via tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA (or -like) motifs, mammalian proteins can interact with Csk (Safari et al., 2011; Repetto et al., 2013) and SHP-1 (Somani et al., 1997). In this study, several mammalian proteins with functional EPIYA (or -like) motifs were identified for which interacting partner(s) are still unknown. So, it would be interesting to gain a better understanding of SFK activity via EPIYA (or -like) motifs. Moreover, elucidation of the structure of mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) motif proteins will provide more information on the specificity of mammalian EPIYA (or -like) segments. It is known that SFKs are activated in some human cancers, including colon and breast cancer (Summy and Gallick, 2003). In this respect, the role of Pragmin EPIYA motif in activation of SFKs should be explored. Notably, SFKs are candidates for the treatment of human cancers (Kopetz et al., 2007; Hollande et al., 2010). Therefore, the specificity of EPIYA (or -like) segments to regulation of SFK activity should be further explored.

Acknowledgment

Introduction
Cellular immunity covers nodule formation, encapsulation and phagocytosis process, and humeral immunity contains enzymatic process like the proPO cascade (Ashida and Brey, 1998; Cerenius and Soderhall, 2004). Phenoloxidase (PO) (EC 1.14.18.1) is an important enzyme in the immune system that is effective in the melanin pathway (Soderhall and Cerenius, 1998). Microorganisms, animals and plants use this enzyme in the innate defense reactions (Sánchez-Ferrer et al., 1995; Chase et al., 2000). Active phenoloxidase carries out hydroxylation of monophenols to produce diphenols and then oxidizes them to quinones (Sugumaran, 2002; Nappi and Christensen, 2005). Enzymatic reactions like PO cascade and some of the non-enzymatic reactions lead to melanin formation from quinone at the final step of nodulation and encapsulation. Also, phenoloxidase plays a key role in melanin production during cuticle sclerotization at external wound sites and during defense responses, i.e., nodulation (Mason, 1955; Ratcliffe et al., 1984; Cerenius et al., 2008).

WebLogo was used to align and display protein sequences

WebLogo 3 was used to align and display protein sequences (http://code.google.com/p/weblogo/) (Crooks et al., 2004).

Results

Conclusion
The sequence EPxYAxV (where x is any amino acid) is significantly underrepresented in mammalian proteomes (Selbach et al., 2009). However, the number of mammalian proteins containing EPIYA-like motifs is not as low as it was proposed before (Xu et al., 2010; this paper). This difference may be due to explanation of “EPIYA-like motif”. In the current study, we identified 50 mammalian proteins which contain bacterial EPIYA (or -like) motifs. Our results showed that most of mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) motifs were not tyrosine phosphorylated at EPIYA (or -like) motifs and thereby, they are “unfunctional EPIYA (or -like) motifs”. Since, bacterial roscovitine proteins containing same EPIYA (or -like) motifs were tyrosine phosphorylated. In this regard, we found that out of 11 functional EPIYA (or -like) motifs in mammalian proteins, six proteins were predicted to be naturally unfolded. Moreover, out of 39 proteins containing unfunctional EPIYA (or -like) motif, 32 proteins were predicted to be ordered at EPIYA (or -like) segments. Therefore, in mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) motif, tyrosine phosphorylation at unfolded EPIYA (or -like) segments is more frequent than ordered EPIYA (or -like) segments. Although, bacterial effector proteins were continuously tyrosine phosphorylated by host tyrosine kinases which seems to be due to unfolded nature of bacterial EPIYA (or -like) motifs. Our results also raise a possibility that EPIYA (or -like) motifs can be potential regulators of SFK members in the cell machinery. On the other hand, SFK activity can be directly regulated via their own EPIYA-like motifs (EPIYI and EPQYQ) or via indirect feedback by functional EPIYA (or -like) motifs containing proteins (including mammalian proteins and pathogenic effector proteins). During long-term co-evolution with hosts, pathogenic bacteria enable to employ host key regulators such as EPIYA (or -like) to better colonization. These key regulators were expanded via recombination (Furuta et al., 2011; Majazki et al., 2013). However, in the mammalian hosts, such key regulators are mostly unfunctional with low copy number. Furthermore, it seems that intramolecular interactions in mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) allowed the EPIYA (or -like) segments to be as unaccessed sites. Notably, SFKs have pleiotropic functions in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes. SFKs are highly conserved across the animal kingdom, and regulation of SFKs is a prerequisite for evolution of multicellular animals (Segawa et al., 2006; Okada, 2012). Our findings showed that via tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA (or -like) motifs, mammalian proteins can interact with Csk (Safari et al., 2011; Repetto et al., 2013) and SHP-1 (Somani et al., 1997). In this study, several mammalian proteins with functional EPIYA (or -like) motifs were identified for which interacting partner(s) are still unknown. So, it would be interesting to gain a better understanding of SFK activity via EPIYA (or -like) motifs. Moreover, elucidation of the structure of mammalian proteins containing EPIYA (or -like) motif proteins will provide more information on the specificity of mammalian EPIYA (or -like) segments. It is known that SFKs are activated in some human cancers, including colon and breast cancer (Summy and Gallick, 2003). In this respect, the role of Pragmin EPIYA motif in activation of SFKs should be explored. Notably, SFKs are candidates for the treatment of human cancers (Kopetz et al., 2007; Hollande et al., 2010). Therefore, the specificity of EPIYA (or -like) segments to regulation of SFK activity should be further explored.

Acknowledgment

Introduction
Cellular immunity covers nodule formation, encapsulation and phagocytosis process, and humeral immunity contains enzymatic process like the proPO cascade (Ashida and Brey, 1998; Cerenius and Soderhall, 2004). Phenoloxidase (PO) (EC 1.14.18.1) is an important enzyme in the immune system that is effective in the melanin pathway (Soderhall and Cerenius, 1998). Microorganisms, animals and plants use this enzyme in the innate defense reactions (Sánchez-Ferrer et al., 1995; Chase et al., 2000). Active phenoloxidase carries out hydroxylation of monophenols to produce diphenols and then oxidizes them to quinones (Sugumaran, 2002; Nappi and Christensen, 2005). Enzymatic reactions like PO cascade and some of the non-enzymatic reactions lead to melanin formation from quinone at the final step of nodulation and encapsulation. Also, phenoloxidase plays a key role in melanin production during cuticle sclerotization at external wound sites and during defense responses, i.e., nodulation (Mason, 1955; Ratcliffe et al., 1984; Cerenius et al., 2008).