br Conclusion br Introduction Dyschromatosis

Conclusion

Introduction
Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH, OMIM 127400), initially known as reticulated acropigmentation of Dohi, was first described by Toyama in 1929. It is a rare pigmentary genodermatosis that is characterized by onset of hyper- and hypopigmented macules on the face and dorsal aspects of the extremities in infancy or early childhood. DSH was previously reported mainly in Japanese and Chinese patients, but a few cases have been reported in different races including Koreans, Indians, Europeans, and South Americans. DSH generally shows an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance with high penetrance, but sporadic cases have been reported. Pathogenic mutations were identified in the double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) gene. The ADAR1 gene, which spans 30 kb and contains 15 exons, is expressed ubiquitously all over the skin, but the molecular pathogenesis of DSH is yet to be clarified. Histological studies have shown abundant melanin pigment in the withaferin a cost and melanocytes in the hyperpigmented macules and reduced melanization in hypopigmented macules.
Most articles so far were case reports especially of those with novel mutations of the ADAR1 gene. To our knowledge, we describe herein the largest series of patients with DSH in Taiwan—25 cases. Through these cases and literature review, we hope to delineate the unique clinical, histological, and genetic features of DSH.

Methods
We were able to identify 35 patients with clinical or pathological diagnosis of “dyschromatosis” or “acropigmentation of Dohi” in the computerized database at the Department of Dermatology at National Cheng-Kung University Hospital from 1992 to 2011. Six patients were excluded by pathological biopsy under the diagnoses of vitiligo, postinflammatory alternation, focal hypopigmentation, dyschromatic amyloidosis, amyloidosis cutis dyschromica, and solar lentigo. Two other patients were excluded under the clinical diagnosis of dyschromatosis lentiginosis and dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH). Due to unavailable photographic documentation and being relatives of the index cases, two additional patients were also excluded. Based on characteristic clinical features, 25 patients were identified under the clinical diagnosis of DSH. Clinical charts and archival photographs were reviewed to determine the distribution of skin lesions, age of onset, family history, and associated diseases. Experienced pathologists performed histological analyses for those who underwent skin biopsy. Mutational analysis of the ADAR1 gene was performed as previously described.

Results
A total of 25 patients (mean age at diagnosis 20.3 years, range 3–68 years) were given the clinical diagnosis of DSH (Table 1). The male:female ratio was 14:11.
Fourteen index cases (56%) had disease onset between birth and childhood (up to an age of 8 years). A positive family history was noted in 14 patients (56%). Pattern of inheritance was basically autosomal dominant. Twelve patients (48%) had typical hypo- and hyperpigmented macules distributed on the dorsal aspects of the extremities (Figure 1). In addition to the extremities, two (8%) and one (4%) patients had cutaneous lesions distributed over trunk and neck, respectively, and 10 patients (40%) had freckle-like macules on the face. Six patients (24%) had coexistence of other diseases, including palmoplantar keratoderma, chronic urticaria, suspected collagen vascular disease, seizure, mental retardation, autism, keratoderma tylodes palmaris progressive, tardive dystonia, mood disorder, and psoriasis.

Mutation analyses
Twelve patients (48%) with genetic mutation analyses were further examined for family history, nucleotide change, amino-acid change, and position of mutation (Table 2). Three of the 12 patients (25%) did not demonstrate mutation in the ADAR1 gene but were still diagnosed with DSH based on clinical grounds. Four of the 12 patients (33%) did not have a family history of DSH, implicating a de novo origin. We have previously identified and published novel mutations found in Patients 2, 5, and 10.

purchase Senexin A Introduction High nitrogen austenitic stainless steel is

Introduction
High nitrogen austenitic stainless steel is a nickel free high Cr–Mn–N steel having a wide scope in defence sector for manufacturing battle tanks by replacing the existing armour steel. Austenitic stainless steel (>0.4% N) are becoming an important engineering material with combination of strength, toughness and wear resistance [1]. Nitrogen has the following advantages: it is an effective solid solution strengthener than carbon and also enhances strengthening of grain size [2,3]. Austenitic steels can benefit from high nitrogen on several aspects: Nitrogen in a solid solution is a beneficial alloying element to increase the strength without significant loss of ductility and toughness. Nitrogen is a strong austenite stabilizer, thereby reducing the amount of nickel required for austenite stabilization. Nitrogen remarkably improves resistance to intergranular, pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking [4]. As these steels are used for structural purposes, welding is an important consideration to join the structural components. During welding, it is very essential to avoid nitrogen losses, which result in poor mechanical properties purchase Senexin A and corrosion resistance. In conventional fusion welding process, it leads to several problems like formation of nitrogen pores, solidification cracking in the weld zone, lowering the dissolved nitrogen for solute strengthening and precipitation of Cr-nitrides in the heat affected zone [5]. The nitride precipitation reduces seriously the mechanical and corrosion resistance. To alleviate the above problems, careful control of shielding gas, filler metal composition with low impurity levels (e.g., S, P) in addition to control on segregation of major alloying elements and minimizing the level of intermetallic precipitates in the weld metal [6]. Defects like porosity and solidification cracking may be overcome by using a suitable filler wire, which produces the required amount of delta ferrite in fusion welds. Based on service conditions, delta ferrite requirement in austenitic stainless steel welds is often specified to ensure that weld contains a desired ferrite level [7]. No commercial matching filler wires are available for welding high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel [3]. Electrode with near matching composition similar to purchase Senexin A metal resulted in improving the corrosion resistance but decreases the mechanical properties [8]. Studies on microstructure and mechanical property correlations of nickel free high nitrogen steel welds are really scarce. In view of the above problems, the present work is aimed at studying the microstructural changes in high nitrogen steel welds made using shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), electron beam welding (EBW) and friction stir welding (FSW) processes, and to correlate microstructure with observed mechanical properties of the welds.

Experimental details
Nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel (HNS) plates of size (500 mm × 150 mm × 5 mm) in wrought form were used in the present study. Weld joint design for SMAW and GTAW processes is shown in Fig. 1 and the welds made with various processes were shown in Fig. 2. Electrode of near matching composition of Cr–Mn–N type is used for the shielded metal arc welding process. Gas tungsten arc welding was made with standard high strength nickel based (18Ni) MDN 250 filler as no suitable fillers are available. Autogenous welds were made using electron beam welding and friction stir welding was carried out using tungsten–molybdenum (W–Mo) tool. The composition of the base metal and filler wires are given in Table 1. After having several experiments, welding parameters were optimized and we have obtained a sound weld free from defects. Optimized welding parameters of all the welding processes are given in Tables 2–5. Microstructural studies were conducted at various zones of the welds using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Orientation image mapping studies were performed with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method to observe the orientation of the grains and phase analysis maps in various zones of the welds. Tensile testing is carried out using a universal testing machine at room temperature and specimens were prepared as per ASTM-E8 standard. Microhardness values were recorded towards the longitudinal directions of the weld with a load of 0.5 kgf for 20 seconds as per ASTM E384-09 standards using Vickers hardness tester. Face bend testing of the material was conducted to observe the crack development to know the ductile nature of the weld as per ASTM E190-92 standards.

Alumno Gris Se me hace una presunci n

Alumno Gris: Se me hace una presunción, primero lógicamente absurda y, segundo, extremadamente peligrosa que los hombres no puedan ser feministas. La cosa del feminismo es una causa de justicia social, y presumir que los hombres no pueden ser feministas porque no viven la situación de las mujeres es como si no pudieran existir antiesclavistas blancos porque no vivían la situación de los negros. O sea, la situación es que al ser cuestión de justicia, cualquier ser humano puede estar consciente de ello no desde un punto de vista de hombre, mujer, cosa, lo que quieras; sino desde el hecho de que eres un ser humano, de que es una situación de injusticia que viven otros grupos de seres humanos, aunque no sea el tuyo. El hecho de que puedas distinguir, en primer lugar, una injusticia y, en segundo, darte cuenta de que existen caminos razonables y soluciones purchase DIG-11-dUTP esa injusticia, es formar parte de un movimiento, formar parte de cierto activismo. Yo no necesito ser de esas personas que trabajan en Asia oriental, en las fábricas de Apple para saber que trabajan en condiciones terribles. Yo no necesito trabajar con ellos para saber que su situación es terrible y debe ser combatida.
Alumna Café: Yo tengo como tres años considerándome feminista; igual comparto esas posturas de que no es necesario ser mujer para ser feminista. De hecho, ojalá que todas las mujeres fueran feministas, pero no es así; creo que considerar a algunos hombres como feministas ¿qué mejor, no?, que muchos hombres pudieran considerarse feministas. La cuestión aquí es que los feminismos no son algo acabado, incluso como una postura ética no es algo acabado, porque al final de cuentas vivimos en un sistema que nos moldea de cierta forma. Y siempre es necesario hacer ese ejercicio de autocritica, de qué actitudes en términos éticos estoy tomando, cómo estoy viviendo mi feminismo. Entonces, tengo más como la curiosidad sobre esa cuestión de los trans-feminismos, que son como la pelea por cambiar el sujeto histórico del feminismo. Históricamente han sido las mujeres como una clase oprimida, digamos. La cuestión aquí es entender al hetero-patriarcado, ¿no? Eso implica reconocer que la violencia que puede haber en el sistema respecto a meristematic tissue ciertos sujetos varía. Creo que es mucho de ética y de consciencia también para el quehacer político del feminismo.
Alumno Plateado: Compartiendo la opinión con Gris, siento que es importante en el tema de los hombres feministas tomar en cuenta que parte de la violencia de género es justamente eso, dividir el binomio masculino/femenino, hombre/mujer. Y el hecho de que, cuando alguien excluye al otro, se entra en un conflicto. La lucha feminista es una lucha de causa social, de igualdad, de equidad, de justicia. Efectivamente, puede haber hombres machistas y puede haber hombres feministas, de la misma manera que puede haber mujeres machistas y mujeres feministas. El problema es que, en la meta a la que queremos llegar, la construcción de la igualdad, no podemos limitarnos, no nos podemos simplemente limitar a “porque eres hombre no eres feminista”.
Alumna Amarillo: Bueno, yo no me considero feminista como tal, la verdad es que sí conozco sobre el tema, pero no a profundidad como para considerarme feminista. Pero eso no quiere decir que no esté a favor de esas reivindicaciones, de la equidad. No de la igualdad, porque obviamente nunca vamos a ser iguales un hombre y una mujer, fisiológica y genéticamente, ¿no? Pero sí considero que es importante que se luche por estas cuestiones de la equidad y que también haya tanto hombres como mujeres que se interesen en ellas. De que si un hombre también puede ser feminista, ¿por qué no? Y una mujer, bueno si no eres feminista, pero sí te interesan los temas de género que tienen que ver con las mujeres, no necesariamente tienes que estar como arraigada con una idea para defender ciertos derechos que también te corresponden como ser humano.

La idea de teor a tica

La idea de teoría ética que está ahora bajo escrutinio es la que Margaret Walker etiqueta como modelo teórico-jurídico. De acuerdo con Walker, los orígenes de esta concepción de la ética se remontan iib iiia inhibitors Henry Sidgwich, cuya carrera como profesor de la cátedra Knightsbridge de filosofía moral en Cambridge (1883–1900) marcó un cambio decisivo hacia la especialización académica y la profesionalización de la filosofía y de otras disciplinas en las universidades. Según Sidgwick, el trabajo de la ética o el estudio filosófico de la moralidad no era determinar la acción correcta o razonable para una situación en particular, sino “buscar un conocimiento general, preciso y sistemático de lo—correcto—y de lo que hace válidos los juicios”. Él consideraba que este proyecto era distinto a la ciencia en tanto que su tarea era formular leyes regulatorias más que explicativas, pero era científico en cuanto a su forma, puesto que buscaba un conocimiento general, preciso y sistemático por medio de un método guiado por exigencias desinteresadas de precisión, claridad y consistencia. Por lo tanto, Sidgwick definió lo que Walker denomina “la idea de un núcleo puro de conocimiento en el corazón de la moralidad”, núcleo que excluía tanto las contribuciones empíricas de las ciencias sociales como las consideraciones de la ubicación histórica y cultural de nuestras perspectivas morales (Walker 1997: 35). Él fecundó la idea de la teoría ética como:
En la tradición filosófica que surge con Sidgwick, el objetivo de la ética es descubrir/construir, probar, comparar y refinar las teorías éticas, y la capacidad moral del individuo se describe como una especie de teoría que está al interior de él. La ética es jurídica en tanto que construye teorías que producen veredictos sobre problemas prácticos específicos y en tanto que adjudica teorías para su adecuación (lógica y epistemológica) (Walker 1997: 37).
La definición que da Sidgwick de la ética pone en evidencia que en su opinión la justificación era central para la teoría ética, aunque más adelante modificaría su postura. Sus sucesores conservaron este enfoque epistemológico, pero desarrollaron un enfoque distintivo para abordar los cuestionamientos de su predecesor. La obra Principia Ethica de G. E. Moore, publicada en 1903, es considerada la introductora del giro lingüístico a la teoría ética, pues aleja la atención filosófica de la consideración explícita de las cuestionas normativas y la fija en el lenguaje y la lógica de la ética. Moore y sus herederos interpretaron su proyecto de analizar el lenguaje y la lógica éticos en términos reminiscentes de Sidgwick. Para ello, se dedicaron a Replication eye buscar un conocimiento general y sistemático de los conceptos morales por medio de un cuestionamiento desinteresado, claro y cuidadoso de los usos del lenguaje moral. Al descartar la mayoría de los hechos sociales por considerarlos irrelevantes e incluir hechos sobre las situaciones sociales de quienes usaban el lenguaje bajo su escrutinio, buscaban descubrir verdades éticas universales, asumiendo aparentemente que los conceptos implícitos en nuestro lenguaje moral eran transhistóricos y transculturales. Aunque se esperaba que los análisis metaéticos fueran imparciales y desapasionados, muchos filósofos confiaban en que pudieran generar conclusiones teóricas sustanciales. Moore creía que determinar el significado de lo bueno revelaría qué era aquello intrínsecamente bueno, mientras que R. M. Hare afirmaba que su análisis de El lenguaje de la moral (1952) escarbaba en los principios fundamentales de lo correcto.
Aunque el término ética aplicada suele seguirse usando para hacer alusión al pensamiento sobre los cuestionamientos morales prácticos, durante la segunda mitad del siglo xx se ha ido erosionando de forma constante la concepción de la teoría ética como un producto de la razón (más o menos) pura aplicable a cuestiones prácticas. La firmeza de este modelo deductivista se fue debilitando incluso en las primeras obras de John Rawls, a quién muchos consideran el teórico ético del siglo xx por excelencia. Su concepto de equilibrio reflexivo, el cual se alcanza al sopesar los principios generales y los juicios morales con la apertura para modificar cualquiera de los dos, ejemplifica un modelo de razonamiento moral que no privilegia la teoría por encima de la intuición. En su obra más reciente, Rawls devalúa aún más el estatus de la teoría ética al abandonar el ideal del punto arquimédico y sustituir la noción del consenso entrecruzado de una comunidad en particular sobre la justicia. Asimismo, otros filósofos han planteado desafíos adicionales a la concepción de Sidgwick de la teoría ética. Por ejemplo, Walker señala que:

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Conclusion

Introduction
Natural flavors are widely used in various foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. These kinds of additives are applied as colors, preservatives, aroma and tasting agents. The large-scale use of certain food flavors requires accumulation of data on these substances [17]. Capsaicin is a pungent principle of hot red pepper. It is used in spices, food additives and drugs [19]. Red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) is widely used as a spice for flavoring foods, particularly in South- East Asian and Latin-American countries and one of its major active ingredients is capsaicin [1,4]. It is thought that when red pepper is consumed in excessive amounts, it leads to “gastric ulcers” in view of its irritant and likely purchase (S)-Crizotinib secreting nature. However, investigations carried out recently by [16] on gastric ulcers revealed that capsaicin is not the cause for ulcer formation but just a co-factor and it was found not to stimulate but on the contrary, to inhibit acid secretion. On the other hand, the same researchers reported that capsaicin stimulates alkali, mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow helping prevention and healing of ulcers. Capsaicin acts by stimulating afferent neurons in the stomach and signals for protection against injury causing agents [12]. reported that Capsaicin in low concentration range (1–8 μg/mL, 100 mL) given by nasogastric tube before gastric injuries induced by ethanol or indomethacin could protect the stomach and this was attributed to stimulation of the sensory nerve endings. The effects of dietary capsaicin on the rat submandibular gland secretion were investigated by [9,10]. The researchers reported the induction of cystatin S substance in submandibular saliva and its contribution in enhancing ingestion of the capsaicin diet. Furthermore, it was suggested that dietary capsaicin could induce salivary cystatin either by stimulating the reflex arc involving the glossopharyngeal nerve [9] or by irritation of the oral mucosa [10]. Data on the effect of capsaicin on the submandibular salivary gland structure was scarce. So, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of capsaicin on the submandibular salivary gland of the albino rats histologically and ultrastructurally.

Material and methods
Twenty adult male albino rats (weighing about 250 ± 20 g. each) were used in this study. Animals were recorded in “The Medical Research Center”, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University and were housed in wire mesh dated cages. They were fed certified pelleted diet and tap water ad libitum. Temperature and humidity conditions were controlled as possible on housing the animals during the experimental period. The capsaicin used in this study was purchased from Sigma chemical co., St. Louis, Mo, USA. The animals were divided into two groups: Control and capsaicin groups. The control group consisted of ten rats that received 0.5 ml distilled water daily by oro-oesophageal tube. The capsaicin group consisted of ten rats that received a daily capsaicin dose equivalent to 0.1 mg/kg body weight [8] (which is equivalent to the average consumption dose for capsaicin in people of Thailand) dissolved in 0.5 ml distilled water by oro-oesophageal tube. After twenty one days, all rats were killed by cervical dislocation, and the submandibular salivary gland of both sides were excised. Both glands of each animal were processed, one for light microscopic examination and the other for transmission electron microscopic examination.

Results

Discussion
People of different cultures around the world have been using herbs and spices to flavor their daily foods. With the increasing worldwide interest in using herbs and spices, such as capsaicin, in medicinal treatment, there is a vital need to assess any possible adverse effects of such spices on different tissues of the body [15]. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of capsaicin on the histology of the submandibular salivary gland. In a previous study [9], reported that when mixing different concentrations of capsaicin with food for seven days, the daily food intake of rats decreased after two days. Therefore, in the present study it was preferred to administer the dose via oro-oesophageal tube, instead of adding it to food, to ensure an accurate standardized dose given to each individual rat during the experimental period. In many countries, the consumption of spices is part of the individual daily diet so it becomes more like a chronic intake, thus in the present study, capsaicin was administrated for twenty one days. Examination of H&E stained sections of the capsaicin group revealed large acinar cytoplasmic vacuoles. These histological results may be interpreted by the findings of [20] who suggested that vacuoles are a result of accumulation of lipid droplets, which come from utilized fatty acids as a result of decreased cellular activity. On the other hand [18], attributed the vacuolization to damage of the mitochondria that are very vulnerable to noxious agents and when damaged, the cellular metabolism fails and sodium ions enter the cell. This osmotic effect causes the breakdown of large macromolecules within the damaged cell leading to the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Taking into consideration the transmission electron micrographs of the present work that frequently presented mitochondrial affection, so the [18] explanation seems most likely to apply to such vacuolizations.

br Acknowledgement br Introduction The reason why leadership maters

Acknowledgement

Introduction
The reason why leadership maters a lot in organizational behavior studies is evident from the fact that, since 2000, organizations have spent $50 billion per year on the leadership development (McCallum & Connell, 2009). Recent studies also indicated an increase interest in studying the social facets of leadership (Balkundi & Kilduff, 2006; Uhl-Bien, 2006). According to many authors, the role of leaders and managers in optimizing the organizational social capital is also under critical debate since last decade (e.g. Hitt & Duane, 2002; Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick-Hall, 2003; Luthans & Youssef, 2004; Ellinger, Ellinger, Bachrach, Wang & Bas, 2011). Moreover, in the past decade, due to the increased focus in exploring the social facets of leadership, researchers’ interest in finding out the relationship between leadership and social capital has also captured extended interest. According McCallum and Connell (2009), in the presence of virtual business settings and unpredictable business conditions, it is very crucial for organizations to prepare its organizational leaders with such skills that help them to generate, use and also endure organizational social capital. As the importance of different facets of leadership has augmented, so does the value of relational leadership׳s effect have burgeoned. It has become a critical form of leadership displaying more effectiveness on behalf of the leaders (Komives, Lucas, & McMahon, 2009; Uhl-Bien, 2006; Komives, Lucas & McMahon, 2013). Therefore, it suggests that relational leadership is considered relatively a new concept in leadership studies (Uhl-Bien, 2006). On the other hand, organizational social capital (OSC) is although not very new concept but considered as very important order INNO-406 for organizational competitiveness (Hitt & Duane, 2002), advocating that it is increasingly recognized as beneficial organizational resource by many researchers (e.g., Cohen & Prusak, 2001; Briena & Smallman, 2011). Some authors mentioned that social capital is still under developmental stages and for human resource development professionals and researchers it is at its exploratory stages (particularly in organizational context). Most of the workplace studies focused social capital as a result of worker behavior (for example Adler & Kwon, 2002). Additionally, some (e.g., Hodson, 2005; Whiteneret al., 1998) also focused managerial behavior as a contributor for organizational social capital. Further, others insisted on the increased responsibility of managers and leaders in leveraging organizational social capital for their followers (Ellinger et al., 2011). Therefore, leadership is proposed as an important organizational element that is found effecting organizational social capital significantly. Although, different forms of leadership are considered in previous studies (For example; transformational leadership); however, the role relational leadership in generating organizational social capital is yet has to be discovered. Therefore, the purpose of this research study is to find out that what is the effect of relational leadership on organizational social capital, particularly in Chinese context. Particular focus is given to three popular forms of organizational social capital i.e. structural organizational social capital (SOSC), relational organizational capital (ROSC) and cognitive organizational social capital (COSC). This study also provides practical implications and limitations at the end.

Literature review

Theoretical framework and hypotheses
On the basis of the above literature and arguments, following hypotheses are generated for this study. The hypothesized relationship among the variables of the study is depicted in Fig. 1. Relational leadership is the independent variable, whereas, structural OSC, relational OSC and cognitive OSC are the dependent variables.
Therefore;

br Conflict of interests br Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge all

Conflict of interests

Acknowledgments
We gratefully acknowledge all the staff who participated in this study. This work was supported by Grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81460323).

Introduction
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a common disease in all ages of the population, especially in children. The severity of RTI varies from mild pharyngolaryngitis to pneumonia or even death. RTIs result in high pediatric hospitalization and morbidity rates. In 2013, up to 0.9 million children aged under 5years died from pneumonia globally, which ranks as the second leading cause of childhood death. Rhinovirus (RV), Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP), adenovirus (ADV), and parainfluenza catalase inhibitor (PIV) were reported to be detected commonly in RTIs. Traditional detection methods, such as viral or bacterial culture, usually require 3–5days and depend on the biological properties of the pathogens. Immunoassays provide faster diagnosis for pathogens but suffer from poor specificity of the antigen–antibody reactions. With the development of molecular diagnosis techniques, PCR-based methods with preferable sensitivity and efficiency can detect co-infection, which is common in children with an RTI. Filmarray is a nested PCR-based platform for pathogen detection. It can complete the detection of 18 respiratory pathogens automatically, with good sensitivity and specificity within 1.2h
Differences in the pathogen spectrum between upper and lower respiratory tract infections remain controversial. It has been demonstrated in several studies that RV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), ADV, and MP were detected frequently in both nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with an RTI. However, some pathogens, such as influenza A virus, were detected more frequently in NPS than in BALF. An ex-vivo study by Nicholls et al. demonstrated that Influenza A virus (H5N1) could not only infect, but also replicate in tissue from the human upper respiratory and lower respiratory tract. There may be an association between the pathogen spectrum in the upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract; however, the different detection rates for pathogen between NPS and BALF might be attributed to the tropism of pathogens in respiratory tract. Few studies have demonstrated the pathogen spectrum in the upper and lower respiratory tract of the same individual. In the present study, we used the Filmarray assay and real-time PCR methods for pathogen detection to investigate pathogens in children with an RTI. Furthermore, we detected pathogens in the NPS and BALF from the same individual, which could help to better understand pathogen distribution and association between the upper respiratory and lower respiratory tract.

Material and methods

Results

Discussion
In this study, pathogens in 55 NPS and 30 BALF samples obtained from 55 hospitalized children with an RTI were detected. Using the Filmarray, 74.5% of the children were found to be infected with at least one pathogen, among which 53.7% of cases were co-infected. Co-infection has been reported to be common in children with an RTI. Previous studies showed that co-infection was found more frequently in children under 2years old than in older age groups. However, Peng et al. stated that children aged from 3 to 6years might be more susceptible to co-infection. This may be explained by the increased exposure to shared childcare groups. However, our study showed no significant increase in co-infection in children aged over 2years. The correlation between co-infection and age in children with an RTI remains controversial and requires further study.
RV was the most prevalent pathogen overall and in the co-infection cases in this study. Other studies showed similar results, which highlighted the important role of RV in RTIs. RSV and MP were also found commonly in children with an RTI. Our study showed that children younger than 2years old were more susceptible to RSV, which agreed with other studies. In addition, MP was detected more frequently in children aged over 2years. Some studies also showed that MP was detected more commonly in pre-school-aged children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia. Our findings may improve diagnosis and lead to better clinical care.

br Introduction One of the most

Introduction
One of the most extensively studied areas in finance literature is stock market integrations. Cheng (2000) define stock market MLN4924 as “the situation where markets moves together and have stable long run relationship”. There will be no potential diversification opportunities for investors, if the stock markets are integrated (Jebran, 2014). Similarly, investors cannot obtain benefits from arbitrage opportunities in case of perfect financial integration (Abbes & Trichilli, 2015). Therefore understanding the integration of stock markets is important for investors for decision making in international portfolios.
The importance of exploring integrations of financial markets led many researchers to search for potential diversification opportunities across markets. Most of the studies are interested in exploring integrations of developed equity markets (Baele, 2002; Diebold & MLN4924 Yilmaz, 2009; Harris & Pisedtasalasai, 2006; Ng, 2000; Wagner & Szimayer, 2004; Xiao & Dhesi; 2010). There are also studies which investigate the integrations of emerging and developed equity markets (Beirne et al., 2009; Li and Majerowska 2008; Jebran 2014; Jebran & Iqbal, 2016). Few of the studies are contributed in investigating the integrations of Islamic equity markets with other markets (Arshad and Rizvi 2013; Nazlioglu, Hammoudeh, & Gupta 2015; Miniaoui et al. 2015; Majdoub and Mansour 2014; Saadaoui and Boujelbene 2015). Most of the studies are carried out after the US subprime financial crises, because the empirical evidences shows that Islamic stock indices perform better, and also provide potential diversification benefits in tranquil and turmoil period (Abbes & Trichilli, 2015). Saiti, Bacha, & Masih (2014) argue that Islamic stock indices performs better due to many specific features that includes exclusion of financial sectors, ethical and ration screenings, the limits of interest-based leveraged, and exclusion of conventional financial assets like derivatives etc. The aforementioned specific features may make an Islamic product less risky. It is generally argued that the features of Islamic stocks are different from conventional stocks because the former is based on Islamic Shariah criteria. Therefore the risk-return tradeoff will be also different and megaspore mother cell is important to explore the potential diversification opportunities across Islamic and conventional indices.

Islamic investment criteria
The Islamic index (known as Karachi Meezan Index) in Pakistan is based on Shariah Compliant Criteria. The Islamic index includes 30 companies, which are selected on the basis of Shariah Compliant Criteria. The board members of Al Meezan Investment Management Limited provide the Shariah screening services. The Islamic Shariah Criteria in Pakistan is based on six screening criteria׳s. The first screening criterion is based on the fact that the core business of the company should not violate any principle of Shariah. Therefore the companies providing financial services on interest like insurance companies, leasing companies, conventional banks etc are not included in the Shariah. In addition, the companies selling or making products from pork, haram meat, and involved in gambling are also excluded from Shariah criteria. The second criterion is based on the idea that the interest bearing debt to assets ratio of the company should be less than 37%. The third screening criterion is that the non compliant investment to total assets ratio of the company should be less than 33%. The non Shariah compliant investment includes investment in commercial paper, bonds, interest bearing bank deposits, derivatives, and any other commercial interest bearing investments. The fourth criterion is that the non compliant income to total revenue of the company should be less than 5%. The non compliant income includes income from interest based transactions, income from derivatives, insurance companies or any other income from impermissible activities declared by Shariah. The fifth criterion is that the ratio of non-current assets to total assets should be less than 25%. The last criterion includes that the market price per share of the company should be equal to or greater than the net liquid asset per share. The net liquid asset per share is calculated by subtracting non-current assets and total liabilities from total assets and dividing by number of outstanding shares. These screening criteria are strictly followed for inclusion of a company in the Islamic index.

beta adrenergic blockers Building performance Lam and Yeang Fisher

Building performance (Lam and Yeang, 2009; Fisher, 2012; Hensel et al., 2012; Hygh et al., 2012; Aldawoud, 2013; Attia et al., 2013) is an important issue in the literature. The integration of support tools into the early stages of architectural design (Lam and Yeang, 2009; Attia et al., 2012; Fisher, 2012; Greenberg et al., 2013) can contribute to the optimization of form and design (Attia et al., 2012; Ihm and Krarti, 2012). CFD simulation (Da Graça et al., 2012) provides leading information for the optimization of natural ventilation and building geometry. Lomas (2007) describes how the architecture of advanced naturally ventilated buildings can be shaped by considering environmental design and ventilation. Wu et al. (2011) compare the CFD results of natural ventilation with the original design concept to verify the architect׳s vision of realizing the design purpose. The integration of CFD results into beta adrenergic blockers simulation (Hiyama and Kato, 2011) promotes building performance while building form and its role on energy consumption (Zerefos et al., 2012) are also determining factors for eco-performative design. Energy efficiency depends on the natural ventilation strategy of a building (Schulze and Eicker, 2013). Therefore, CFD analysis (Givens, 2011; Suárez et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2012) can be decisive in bioclimatic architecture.

The concept of “breathing architecture”
Accordingly, through the scientific observation of air flow, the natural ventilation of buildings can be controlled, and thermal comfort can be achieved. Furthermore, air exchange rates can be optimized, and indoor air quality can be improved. These conditions may lead to proper oxygen concentration levels, which in turn contribute to the promotion of good health and pleasant living environment for the inhabitants. Consequently, the architectural synthesis of a building or space, as well as the use of high technology and technical expertise to achieve high-quality indoor atmosphere, enables the ability of the building or space to “breathe” (Stavridou, 2009).

Computational and laboratory simulation of the natural ventilation of buildings
To effectively utilize the natural ventilation of buildings in the architectural design process, investigating the relevant scientific fields is essential. The natural ventilation of buildings is investigated using computational and laboratory simulation (Stavridou, 2011; Stavridou and Prinos, 2013). CFD software is used for the computational simulation while the laboratory simulation is conducted in the Laboratory of Hydraulics, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
In the computational simulation, the software FLUENT 6.0.12 is used (Fluent Incorporated, 2001), and the problem is solved using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with the energy equation and the turbulence model RNG k–ε. The geometry and grid of the simulation is created using Gambit (Fluent Incorporated, 2000).

Impact of the investigation into the natural ventilation of buildings on four parameters of architectural design
The natural ventilation of buildings and architectural design are interdependent. Changes in natural ventilation strategies affect architectural design, and vice versa. Architectural design and its components can form different types of ventilation based on the architectural synthesis of each building. The investigation into the natural ventilation of buildings (Stavridou, 2011; Stavridou and Prinos, 2013) provides data and information that affect architectural design. This influence refers to different parameters that constitute fundamental parts of the synthetic process and the structure of architectural design. In this section, the following four substantial parameters are examined: (i) inspiration and analogical transfer, (ii) initial conception of the main idea by using CFD (digital design), (iii) development of the main idea through an investigatory process toward building form optimization, and (iv) form configuration, shape investigation, and other morphogenetic prospects.

br Conclusion br The vision though noted is yet to

Conclusion

The vision, though noted, is yet to be sculpted in the right direction. In current architectural discourse, a tendency in which contemporary examples are placed in a hermetic situation where traditional and modern architectural examples are displaced from one another, thereby subverting any possibility for transmission of ideas and lessons between the two despite emerging findings from local architectural case studies where technological I-BET-762 cost innovations and environmental perception and knowledge are remarkably modern. Such tendency limits and slows the promise for the development of an ecologically inspired green/sustainable design-tuned architecture, though this I-BET-762 cost appears to be a catchphrase now. The findings presented in this study do not propose utopian solutions from Asian vernacular examples that might be included in modern buildings. Rather, a few key merged notions between traditional and modern ways of building and construction are illustrated throughout the article. In doing so, we propose that ideas and issues be opened up for the exploration and identification of new directions in green/sustainable and innovative techniques, which might be channeled and filtered through local knowledge, practice, and wisdom as much as by new industrial innovations and emerging technology. Vernacular dwelling studies show a remarkable shift from the previous “image” and “notion” ideas of static old forms. By contrast, a section of current works is opting to highlight critical, creative, and procedural aspects of vernacular examples. This shift certainly lifts vernacular to a prominent position in architectural research, education and practice.
In essence, this understanding is not so remote from the famous Miesian aphorism,“ Form is not the aim of the work, but only the result” (Fromonot, 2003, 23).This result, as in the vernacular architecture of the Mru as well as in modern successful design practices, is hinged on some common dynamics. Any boundary between tradition and modernity is fluid and complex. The bypassed vernacular built solutions, such as material and structural sensibility, minimalism, modularity, adaptability, as well as tactile and temporality or fluidity, are essentially modern. Drawing upon the similarities in principles rather than in images, one can see the possibilities of transmission of ideas and techniques from traditional (in vernacular) to modern (as in contemporary examples) or from modern to vernacular in a two way directional process.
Needless to say, local vernacular examples offer a rich repertoire of architectural knowledge not only in the field of design, innovations, and sustainable techniques but also in other theoretical fields. Local solutions are obviously honed by culture and social logic (Rapoport, 2005; Oliver, 2003), thereby adding a deeper meaning to the given examples. Indeed, many of the defining criteria for modernist design (such as Le Corbusier׳s “five points of architecture”) that are often considered as radical innovations, are inspired by traditional or vernacular forms (Glancey, 2003) in which social, cultural, spatial, physical, technological, and aesthetic factors combined into one complex definition.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Professor Miles Lewis of Architecture Building and Planning (ABP), University of Melbourne, for his unwavering encouragement, useful critiques, and support for Synaptonemal complex work. Our gratitude to traveling companions MonKhia and PothiMong, for accompanying us to the remote CHT settlements. Lastly and foremost, deepest thanks to the Mru people in the Bandarban area, especially the karbaris of the ten hamlets, for letting us stay and for trusting and confiding in us. We would also like to thank Jean Pipite of Agence de Developpment de la Culture Kanak for granting the permission to use the photos showcasing Renzo Piano׳s work (Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center).