CAL101 Table is about penalties against violation questioning an effectiveness of

Table 2 is about penalties against violation, questioning an effectiveness of the regulation, as the number of successful prosecution has been very limited (Table 2).
Investigation and supervisory actions at large scale would be taken for the workplaces where multiple significant accidents occurred. In 2009, a group of inspectors supervised a Korean shipbuilding corporation for 10 days, and found approximately 1,400 violations as specified in Table 3. With this number, we can question on whether the owner did not or could not observe the regulations. Another question is that the accidents will not occur if the correcting actions are all taken (Table 3).
Fig. 3 shows the trend of number of workplaces with limited number of prevention resources. The number of workplaces doubled from 706,231 places (‘00) to 1,560,949 places (‘09), however, the number of prevention personnel remained almost unchanged at 1,000 during last 10 years (Fig. 3).

Experiences on Legalization of Risk Assessment Scheme
Korea has established a standard for evaluating harmfulness and hazards in industry and then enforced to apply it CAL101 to a set of industrial fields as follows.
Table 4 lists examples that are more detailed (Table 4).

Executing Project for Constructing Risk Assessment Scheme
The Korean government has made significant efforts on applying the risk assessment scheme as follows:
There are several successful experiences in risk assessment. From the 1960s, Korean industries have been encouraged by the government to nurture heavy and chemical industry and to modernize the economics and industrial structures. Therefore, the hazards from potential accidents such as fire and explosion or release of toxic chemicals have also increased. As the chemical companies recognized the importance of preventing major hazards, Process Safety Management (PSM) system for preventing major industrial accidents was introduced in January 1995 by amending Industrial Safety and Health Act, and it has been enforced from January 1, 1996. The PSM system comprises major four elements, based on risk assessment as the most important key element. Its implementation and operation over 14 years have made magnificent achievements; while regular and fatal accident rates have decreased, both productivity and product quality have increased as shown in Table 5.
As another successful example, a risk assessment scheme was applied to the project, “Occupational Safety Health Management System (KOSHA18001) Certification” in 1999. In general, the system evaluates a company’s management structure to check whether it meets the requirements of KOSHA 18001 system on the purpose of voluntary participation to occupational safety and health management system. Risk assessment process is the key element at the stage of planning. Through the process of assessing potential risks, the level of safety and health can be identified, which becomes vital sources for establishing occupational safety and health activity promotion plan. Table 6 shows how KOSHA 18001 was beneficial. For example, since D Heavy Industries and Construction Co. obtained KOSHA18001 Certification in 2004, D had remarkable decrease of industrial accidents (1,500 potential risk factors on monthly average identified and removed in advance) (Table 6).
The project initiates with the infrastructure build-up through a set of intermediate test phases, and finalizes with full application of the system by its legalization. Basic execution steps are described as follows:
A set of intermediate phases are based on zoning for applying beta version of risk assessment scheme, designating and operating it in a specified zone, and gradually expanding zones during a period of 3 years (2010 – 2012) as shown in Fig. 4;

Task Force for the Project
MOEL is to take charge of the project as a leading module. Task Force (TF) team comprises the MOEL, KOSHA and consulting agencies, TF will be a basic framework for executing the project, involving major policy-making, operation, performance evaluation and management, as shown in Fig. 5.