br Results and discussion br Conclusion In

Results and discussion

In this paper, an integrated Taguchi–DEA–PCA approach is proposed for ranking GENCOs based on HSEE indicators. For ranking this sector of industry, the combination of DEA, PCA, and Taguchi is efficiently used for all GENCOs. All of the useful and influential points of these methods are used to measure the GENCO\’s performance. To recognize all economic and technical indicators (indices), a comprehensive study is conducted. In the proposed case study, Taguchi was selected as the preferred model for ranking GENCOs. In addition, the sensitivity analysis verifies the results of the proposed approach. Moreover, the most important category and factor are identified, which are environment and SO, respectively. The results of such studies would help not only top managers to have a better understanding of weak and strong points in their systems\’ performance but also help experts and researchers to determine the satisfactory levels of each subsectors\’ performances in terms of HSEE factors. In addition, the developed approach of this study could be used for continuous assessment and improvement of GENCO\’s performance in supplying iib iiia inhibitors with respect to HSEE factors. The proposed approach of this study is also compared with some of the relevant studies to show its advantages over previous ones (Table 7).

Conflicts of interest

The authors are grateful for the valuable comments and suggestions by the respected reviewers, which have enhanced the strength and significance of this work. This study was supported by a grant from Iran National Science Foundation (Grant No. 93010029). The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by Iran National Science Foundation.

KWCS has benchmarked the research methods and the research contents, and has merely modified some of the criteria such as employment type, occupation, business type, drinking, and smoking based on the master questionnaire of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) while also considering cultural differences [1].

Materials and methods


Based on KWCS data, we have seen rapid changes in the socio-demographic characteristics of workers. First of all, the age of workers stands out, and the Economically Activity Population Estimation and Projection (EAPEP) [6] published by International Labor Organization (ILO) projects that in 2020 40% of the labor force participation will be aged ≥ 50 years. In the meantime, the second KWCS shows that the proportion of those who were aged ≥ 50 years had reached 37.88%. Since an aging workforce is likely to not only have an influence on social welfare but also an increased exposure to occupational accidents, we would need institutional devices to protect those workers. Secondly, Branch migration is the increasing proportion of those who are self-employed without employees, where we witnessed a growing trend: a number of wage workers reaching the age of 50 years or older leaving corporate employment and becoming self-employed without employees. Many of these people create a new place of business and work long hours in poor working conditions in pursuit of a successful entry into the market. Accordingly, we urgently need to come up with a prevention strategy to protect these people. Thirdly, the analysis of labor quality shows that Korea, while involved in longer hours of work, registers a relatively low work intensity as compared to the countries surveyed for EWCS. Long working hours or overtime work exerts a negative influence on the balance between work and life [7]. High work intensity may cause work–site accidents or influence health as it combines with poor working conditions. Also, pressure from speed is related to not only the psychological working conditions but also the greater likelihood of experiencing physical risks and symptoms at work places. Fourthly, it is a decrease in the exposure to physical and chemical hazards which has traditionally been a concern in the area of industrial safety and health. Especially outstanding is the decreased exposure to cigarette smoke, which is presumed to have resulted from the recent government-led smoke-free workplace campaigns. However, we saw a very high level of stress which is a psychological hazard [8]. Fifthly, we saw a noticeable increase in complaints of muscle pain in arms and legs among other health problems in the first and second KWCS. To find the cause of this, we would need to perform in-depth studies, and at this point, we only presume that the increased complaints derive from the increase in senior workers whose bone joints and muscles are aged. As demonstrated in the results of the study, KWCS data has identified those groups that are vulnerable in terms of quality of labor, hazards, and health problems through a comparative analysis including countries of European Union that performs a quantitative measurement of working conditions. Looking ahead, KWCS continues surveys and research to ensure its application as basic data for policies. In the near future, the change of labor force from 2006 to 2010 can be investigated by indepth analysis with the consideration of the changes in industrial and occupational structure. Based on the above findings, working hours and work intensity may be cohesively analyzed in order to analyze the quality of the Korean workforce.

br Materials and methods br Results and discussion br Conflict

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Conflict of interest

The authors thank the Office of the Higher Education Commission for financial support in this work and King Mongkut\’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand for facility support.

Chitosan is a bio-material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is derived from shrimp or crab shell, with sodium hydroxide (Ifuku et al., 2013). Therefore, chitosan is widely used as an environmentally friendly product with antibacterial, biodegradable and non-toxic properties (Ashori et al., 2006; Sarwar et al., 2009; Nicu et al., 2011, 2013). As its chemical structure (C6H11NO4) is very similar to cellulose, chitosan is easily absorbed onto the cellulosic surface of fibers due to chemical affinity and has been applied to improve some properties of cellulose-based material especially those of reverse transcriptase inhibitors fibers and paper sheets (Lertsutthiwong et al., 2002, 2004; Nada et al., 2005; Ashori et al., 2006; Sarwar et al., 2009; Nicu et al., 2011, 2013). Even though chitosan has demonstrated its possible application in the papermaking process as a dry and wet strength additive (Lertsutthiwong et al., 2002; Nada et al., 2005; Ashori et al., 2006; Sarwar et al., 2009; Nicu et al., 2011, 2013), some properties of paper treated with chitosan as an additive have not yet been reported, such as brightness, opacity, surface roughness and surface water absorptiveness.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion
Tables 1 and 2 show the changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the handsheets treated with shrimp chitosan. Some uncommon data were found concerning the effects of shrimp chitosan on the physical properties of the handsheets—brightness, opacity, surface roughness and surface water absorptiveness. As can be seen in Fig. 1, the brightness of shrimp-chitosan-treated handsheets significantly decreased. This was possibly because the handsheets treated with shrimp chitosan had a higher apparent density or fewer air voids in their structure, resulting in a decrease in the refraction and scattering of the light traveling in their structure as shown in Fig. 2. Casey (1981) theoretically stated that the brightness of handsheeets demonstrates the amount of diffusely reflected light caused by refraction and scattering. The difference between the refractive index of transparent cellulose fiber and that of air voids in the handsheet structure comprehensively affected the refraction and scattering of the light traveling throughout the structure. Khantayanuwong et al. (2006) also demonstrated that the brightness of recycled handsheets increased while their apparent density decreased. These phenomena were consistent with the effect of the changed apparent density of paper on its brightness due to beating and wet pressing (Casey, 1981). Furthermore, the decrease in brightness was possibly due to the increase in light absorption of the higher apparent density of handsheets (that is their opacity increased), even though Casey (1981) and Khantayanuwong et al. (2006) demonstrated that handsheets with a very low density or with a very high density could be transparent due to the transparency of air voids or due to lots of transparent material in the cellulose fibers in the handsheet structure, respectively.
Fig. 3 shows that both the top and bottom sides of shrimp-chitosan-treated handsheets demonstrated smoothness compared to the equivalent untreated ones, especially the handsheets treated with shrimp chitosan at 0.25% o.d. wt. of pulp. As can be seen, however, the smoothness of shrimp-chitosan-treated handsheets was not increased by increasing the amount of shrimp chitosan in the handsheets. This result possibly indicated that high amounts of shrimp chitosan applied to handsheet production might not be distributed uniformly throughout the surface of the handsheets even though a shrimp-chitosan film could form on the fiber surface (Lertsutthiwong et al., 2002).

br Jugadores en la explanada Christoph Weiditz elabor la

Jugadores en la explanada
Christoph Weiditz elaboró la imagen europea más antigua que se conoce de indios practicando el juego de pelota, misma que se reproduciría ampliamente nf-κb pathway lo largo de los siglos xvi y xviii; realizó los esbozos y dibujos preliminares en presencia de los jugadores, posteriormente en su taller elaboró y terminó los dibujos del Trachtenbuch, obra que no se publicó, pero que tras su muerte en 1559 se vendió. Puesto que su obra era muy conocida entre los círculos interesados, muchas de las 154 imágenes (entre ellas algunas de las once en las que representó a los indios que Hernán Cortés llevó de la Nueva España a Barcelona, incluidas las láminas XIII y XIV donde se representan a los dos jugadores de pelota) se encuentran reproducidas en otros volúmenes de la época, por ejemplo en las láminas 372b-373a del Libro de trajes, una obra reunida en Nuremberg por Sigmund Hagelsheimer, conocido como Heldt.
Es de relevancia no solamente notar las semejanzas entre las imágenes de Weiditz de los jugadores de pelota y aquellas de Heldt, sino también es necesario destacar las diferencias. No conozco esta imagen, aunque tenemos referencias de que la lámina está muy destruida por lo que se estima que la de Weiditz es de mejor calidad (Hampe 1994: 28). Un hecho diferente entre ambas y que contrasta como notable es que en la ilustración de Heldt hay trazos de herbaje y pasto en el suelo ondulante, para señalar el lugar donde se representa el encuentro entre los jugadores.
La imagen que representa el desarrollo del juego de pelota entre los dos jugadores es la visualización de un evento que integra lo que Weiditz fortuitamente observó; no está basada en relatos o crónicas, pero sí conlleva el imaginario del artista de un cuerpo en esfuerzo. La existencia y duración de su representación es muestra del interés extendido por el Nuevo Mundo y la necesidad de situarlo dentro del paradigma del Occidente.

La imagen de los jugadores de Cristoph Weiditz fue reproducida en los Grandes viajes de Theodore de Bry de 1597 en la cual aparece en dos circunstancias, y situarlas mejor entre la serie de imágenes que se tienen del juego de pelota exige tomar en cuenta el contexto en el que se formularon y la manera en la que se reprodujeron y transitaron.
En los libros IV, V y VI de su obra, De Bry (que están basados en La Historia del Nuevo Mundo de Jerónimo Benzoni publicada en 1565, texto en el que el italiano registró sus propias experiencias, entre las cuales —cabe subrayarlo— no se registra el juego de pelota americano) reunió los hechos de los hombres que describieron las tierras americanas y sus habitantes, además de que se incluyeron las historias y narraciones ocurridas en el Nuevo Mundo.
Al registrar las noticias del reino de Perú, formuladas por Benzoni en el Libro III de su obra (De Brye 1997: 216, 230-231, 449), y al situar las hazañas de Francisco Pizarro y de los otros conquistadores de los incas, De Bry realizó un grabado en el que representa la ciudad de Cuzco. La ciudad donde gobernaba el rey Atahualpa es ubicada en un llano con altas montañas nevadas al fondo, en primer plano se encuentran varios personajes que realizan actividades que caracterizan a decay series los indígenas, según el juicio de De Bry. Por un lado, vemos sacrificios, ídolos y animales fantásticos y, por otro, los “volteadores del palo” y los jugadores (fuera de todo contexto arquitectónico) que impulsan una pelota (figura 2).
La semejanza entre los jugadores de De Bry y de Weiditz es innegable, una copia tomada de evidencia visual, y debido a que los “volteadores del palo” también se encuentran en la ciudad de Cuzco, es evidente que la imagen de los grabadores de los talleres de De Bry deriva de la obra de Weiditz. No obstante el camino por el que De Bry se encontró con el dibujo de Weiditz, y debido a que buscar las circunstancias que expliquen las semejanzas entre los grabados de ambos artistas rebasa nuestro enfoque, sólo cabe considerar que De Bry se estableció en Frankfurt y ahí los conoció de alguna manera (ya sea el Libro de trajes de Heldt o bien los dibujos de Weiditz, quien vio a los jugadores cuando Hernán Cortes los llevó a Barcelona).

In our university sample of men we did not find

In our university sample of men, we did not find a significant correlation between sexual functioning and sexually coercive behaviors nor did we find a significant relationship between sexual functioning and hostility toward women or interest in engaging in rape. In this way, our findings diverge from that of Carvalho et al. [3]. We did find an association between sexual functioning and acceptance of rape myths, though this relationship was attenuated by controlling for attachment BTS and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. This latter pattern suggests that a connection between sexual functioning and sexual coercion proclivity, if it exists, is likely due to a shared association with more distal predictor variables.
The lack of a strong association between sexual functioning and sexually coercive behaviors in our study compared with past studies is likely due to differences in the populations investigated. Most previous studies in this area have examined incarcerated sex offenders, including both rapists and child molesters. Also, only 8.4% of our participants reported having engaged in sexually coercive behaviors, while the student sample of Carvalho et al. [3] reported almost three times as many (21.7%). It is possible that cultural differences between our populations contributed to different patterns. Varying levels of social prohibitions against sexual coercion between cultures may encourage different degrees of inhibition against such behaviors. It is also possible that, despite controlling for social desirability responding, social prohibitions or other contextual factors may cause differences in the level of willingness to disclose commission of sexual coercion.
The current study has several limitations. As a cross-sectional correlational study, the direction of casuality of any effects can only be hypothesized. For instance, it is also possible that engaging in sexually coercive behaviors shapes the cognitions, emotions, and beliefs of male perpetrators with regard to women and sexuality, and may also potentially alter attachment style. This study also did not control for the possible influence of substance use or psychopathology, which are often important factors in the commission of sexual offending and are known to be affected by factors such as attachment style [36]. Associations between substance use or general psychopathology with sexual coercion behaviors may represent another mechanism by which distal developmental factors like attachment style can influence proximate behaviors. Also, the current BTS study was limited to men having sex with women. Sexual coercion is also a prevalent issue among nonheterosexual relationships, and both men and women are also capable of being aggressors or victims. Finally, cultural norms in our particular population, the use of a university student sample, and other contextual factors can have a substantive influence on the variables measured. Like all single-sample studies, consideration for these factors must be made before applying any generalizations to other populations.



In the World Health Organization classification system, International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10, transsexualism is categorized in the group of \”disorders of adult personality and behavior,\” specifically in the subgroup of \”gender identity disorders\” [1]. Central to the condition is that an individual with normal somatic sexual differentiation is unalterably convinced that she/he belongs to the opposite sex [2,3].
According to the ICD-10, the following three criteria must be met before an individual may be diagnosed with transsexualism: (i) the person has the desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex; (ii) usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with or inappropriateness of one\’s anatomic sex; and (iii) a wish to have surgery and/or hormonal treatment to make one\’s body as congruent as possible with one\’s preferred sex [1].

GDC0941 br Role of the Funding

Role of the Funding Source


Conflict of Interest

Data used in the current manuscript were collected in the context of a trial supported by a grant from the clinical trial program of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; Mo 969/6-1).

For adequate social interaction a quick and proper apprehension of social information is required. Patients with schizophrenia experience problems in the processing of such information. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that patients have substantial problems with recognizing emotions in facial expressions of others (Kohler et al., 2010; Marwick and Hall, 2008), not only compared to healthy control subjects (Kohler et al., 2000; Turetsky et al., 2007; van’t Wout et al., 2007) but also compared to patients with other psychiatric disorders (Addington and Addington, 1998; Weniger et al., 2004). Facial emotion recognition is part of the domain of social cognition, which further includes social perception and knowledge, theory of mind and attributional bias (Green et al., 2005; Penn et al., 2008).
Based on the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls on both social cognitive and neurocognitive tasks, there is growing evidence that impairments in social cognition should be considered an independent construct (Mehta et al., 2013; Penn et al., 2000; Pinkham, 2003; Sergi et al., 2007; Van Hooren et al., 2008) with suggestions for separate neural pathways (Phillips et al., 2003). On the other hand there appears to be an overlap between social cognitive and neurocognitive impairments (Addington and Addington, 1998; Kohler et al., 2000; Oerlemans et al., 2013; Poole et al., 2000; van Rijn et al., 2011), indicative of a more generalized cognitive deficit.
Social cognition appears to explain more variance in functional outcome parameters such as GDC0941 functioning, compared to neurocognition (Fett et al., 2011). Some authors have proposed that social cognition may act as a mediator in the relation between neurocognition and functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia (Addington et al., 2006; Barbato et al., 2013; Sergi et al., 2007).
Within the domain of social information processing there is a debate on the specificity of facial emotion recognition in relation to the recognition of facial identity. While in some studies no differential deficits between these abilities were found (Addington and Addington, 1998; Pomarol-Clotet et al., 2010; Sachs et al., 2004), other studies have shown specific deficits in facial affect recognition in patients with schizophrenia (Kosmidis et al., 2007; Kucharska-Pietura et al., 2005; Penn et al., 2000; Poole et al., 2000; Schneider et al., 2006).
More detailed studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia specifically experience problems with recognising negative emotions, including fear, sadness, anger and disgust (Edwards et al., 2001; Kohler, 2003; Brüne, 2005; Hall et al., 2008). Imaging studies on healthy subjects show that amygdala activation has been associated with the recognition of negative emotions, especially fear (Fusar-Poli et al., 2009; Phan et al., 2002). Structural abnormalities found in the amygdala (Wright et al., 2000) as well as functional abnormalities in relation to emotion recognition (Gur, 2002; Holt et al., 2006) in patients with schizophrenia suggest a pathogenetic role of the amygdala in schizophrenia. These findings are in line with the hypothesis of a distinctive impairment in the recognition of (negative) emotions in patients with schizophrenia (Aleman and Kahn, 2005; Amminger et al., 2012).
In the current study we aimed to further explore the relation between facial emotion recognition, facial identity recognition and neurocognitive functioning. We therefore compared patients with GDC0941 schizophrenia and matched controls on recognition of facial emotions and face identity, specifically contrasting results with those on (non-social) abstract pattern recognition. For that purpose we have used the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT; de Sonneville, 2014), which allows for directly contrasting facial emotion recognition with identification of more basic social patterns (face identity) and non-social patterns (abstract figures), as the paradigms used in these tasks are similar and differ only on the degree to which they call on social information processing (high on emotion recognition, intermediate on face recognition and low on abstract pattern recognition).

This scenario may change While

This scenario may change. While low K03861 growth is acutely visible in advanced economies today, less visible is the accelerating replacement of labor by machines. Contemporary labor-substitution takes the form of automation, computerization, and robotics, which are long-existing technologies. Computing and robotics for example were both well established by the 1950s. In the 2010s, their labor-replacing power accelerated. This kind of long-run development punctuated by a late arriving, sharp upswing is true of many major technology impacts. Rarely are they overnight stories. In fact, automation is as old as industrialism. What is interesting about the post-2008 acceleration of automation is its focus: routine work on a large-scale, including both repetitive manual work in the case of robotics; and repetitive, white collar office work in the case of computerization. Across the medium term of ten to twenty years (2008–2030), the amount of routine work expected to be replaced is very large indeed. Thirty-to-forty percent of existing jobs will be affected in major ways, suggesting that, in net terms, as least 20 percent of existing work will be completely eliminated.
The process of reducing routine work has been going on beneath the economic surface in advanced economies since 1990. In each succeeding cyclical downturn since then, another portion of the total volume of repetitive work has been replaced by machines. This labor-substitution was disguised by the simultaneous growth of government and corporate regulation. Productivity gains through automation were negated by the post-industrial expansion of private and public bureaucracies. As government, health and education sectors, and corporations became more efficient, they also became less efficient. In the 1980s, socialism as political idea collapsed in many countries. After that, though, regulation flourished. The aggressive expansion of regulation in advanced economies generated routine work functions. Checking, auditing, reviewing, inspecting, assessing, appraising, and examining became the K03861 industry of the 1990s and 2000s in major economies. As this was happening, technology was being developed that would eventually automate these functions. Today, online processing of routine customer applications by government is one-thirtieth the cost of performing the same operation in-person, face-to-face. Offshoring the application process is, by comparison, only one-fifth of a face-to-face transaction. Consequently, the balance between the multiplication of routine functions and their automation is now shifting decisively in favor of automation.
In economies like the United States, automating routine work has produced the phenomenon of “job polarization.” Jobs at the top and bottom ends of the work-skill spectrum have grown since 1990, while demand for routine mid-tier, mid-skill work, notably in offices, has declined—and is projected to decline further. The result has been a hollowing-out of middle class jobs with the prospect that many more such occupations will disappear over the next two decades. Since 1990, low-income service work has been less affected by automation. It is often not routine enough to be replaced by the current generation of machines. But with rapid advances in robotics in the last decade (2006–2016) that is changing. Wider and wider swathes of routine work of all kinds, manual and non-manual, are projected to be replaced by machines in the near- and medium-term future. The scale of replacement is massive.
The execution of a routine task involves repetitious and well-defined steps that can be easily mimicked by a computer algorithm. Once that has been written, the work can be done by a machine or machines. Progressively, software is replacing mid-tier accounting, HR, payroll, tax agent, travel agent, clerical processing, and numerous similar functions. As machine intelligence has improved and sensor technology has grown cheaper and better, advances in autonomous robotic systems are replacing ever-increasing numbers of mobile and manual operations with machines. Autonomous cars, military vehicles, and aircraft along with domestic, factory, and hospital robot assistants are appearing. In twenty years\’ time, road and transport systems will be largely driverless and operator-less. People-less systems of factories-warehousing-transport-retail lie not too far in the future. For the moment, robots are still poor at carrying out tasks that involve high levels of manual dexterity. With time the dexterity of machines will grow.

The rest of the paper

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section  2 describes the problem, defines the assumptions, and formulates the problem. In Section  3, we propose the metaheuristics which are applied to solve the problem. Section  4 describes the tuning of parameters of the algorithms and investigates their performance. Finally, Section  5 concludes the paper.

Problem description


Genetic algorithm and simulated annealing: fine-tuning, testing, and comparisons

To develop a more realistic redundancy allocation model, we developed a model such that the mean time to failure of a system was maximized. To solve the RAP, we applied two metaheuristic algorithms, GA and SA. To improve the efficiency of the proposed GA and SA, their parameters were fine-tuned using response surface methodology. These metaheuristics were compared on the basis of computational experiments performed on a set of 30 problem instances. The results of the computational experiments showed that the GA performed better than the SA algorithm, measured by solution accuracy indexes. However, the average computational time of SA was better than that of the GA. Some extensions of this research might be of interest, while, in this paper, we only considered a series–parallel system; some other configurations, such as -out-of-, may be considered. The other extension of this research would be to develop a bi-objective model to optimize mean time to failure and cost of the system.


The most serious problem in studying certain social problems that are sensitive in nature (e.g. induced abortion, drug usage, tax evasion, etc.) is lack of a reliable measure of their incidence or prevalence. Social Schaftoside manufacturer and fear of reprisal usually result in lying by the respondents when approached with the conventional or direct-response survey method. An obvious consequence of false reporting is unavoidable estimation bias. Warner  [1] showed this evasive answer bias to prevail in the estimate obtained by direct questioning, and proposed a Randomized Response Model (RRM) to estimate the proportion of prevalence of sensitive characteristics in a population. Greenberg et al.  [2] extended the RRM to the estimation of mean of a sensitive quantitative variable. The recent articles on the estimation of mean of a sensitive variable include: Eichhorn and Hayre  [3], Singh et al.  [4], Gupta et al.  [5], Bar-Lev et al.  [6], Ryu et al.  [7], Hussain et al.  [8], Hussain and Shabbir  [9,10], Huang  [11,12], Gjestvang and Singh  [13,14], Gupta et al.  [15] and the references cited therein. For a detailed understanding of RRM, interested readers may be referred to Chaudhuri and Mukerjee  [16].
In the literature on estimation of scrambled randomized response models, we can find two types of scrambling, namely, the additive and multiplicative. The additive scrambled response model is due to Himmelfarb and Edgell  [17], and has been advocated by many authors due to its simplicity of application (cf.  [11–13,15]). Keeping in mind this advocacy, it is obvious that we need to search for an improvement in additive randomized response models. In this study, we present an unbiased estimator of the mean, assuming Simple Random Sampling with Replacement (SRSWR) and Stratified Random Sampling (STRS) protocols. The paper is organized as follows. In Section  2, we briefly present Hussain and Shabbir  [10] and Gjestvang and Singh  [14] models. The proposed generalization is showcased in Section  3 under SRSWR and STRS schemes. Section  4 of the paper consists of efficiency comparisons and Section  5 is about a practical study, followed by conclusions of this study in Section  6.

Following Gjestvang and Singh  [13], Gjestvang and Singh [14] proposed an additive Randomized Response Model. For the th individual, let and be the values of the sensitive and scrambling variables, respectively. The distribution of is completely known, with mean and variance, . Assuming and to be positive real constants, the Gjestvang and Singh  [14] model provides two options for the respondents; (i) “Report the value ”, and (ii) “Report the value ”, with pre-assigned probabilities and , respectively, where is a scrambling variable with mean, , and variance, . Let be the reported response of the th respondent, then, it can be written as: where is a Bernoulli random variable having value ‘1’, if statement (i) is randomly chosen by the respondent and ‘0’, otherwise. They proposed an unbiased estimator of the population mean, , of the sensitive variable, , as: with variance: It is to be noted that borrowing the idea from Gjestvang and Singh  [13], Hussain and Shabbir  [10] proposed an improved version of Gjestvang and Singh  [14] RRM. The RRM of Hussain and Shabbir  [10] is actually a two stage RRM. In their proposed RRM, a sample of size is drawn from the population with a SRSWR sampling scheme. Each individual in the sample is requested to use a randomization device, , which consists of the two statements: represented with the probabilities and , respectively. The randomization device, , consists of the two statements: represented with probabilities and , respectively. Let be the response of the th respondent, then, it can be written as: where , if statement (i) is randomly chosen in , and ‘0’, otherwise. Similarly, , if statement (i) is randomly chosen in and ‘0’, otherwise. An unbiased estimator of is given by: The variance of the is given by: Hussain and Shabbir  [9] used the idea of distributing the probability of reporting on the true value of into stages using the multiplicative randomized response models and reported the following advantages: (i) the inability of a clever respondent to correctly guess the total probability on reporting ‘’. (ii) Provision of more protection against the privacy of the respondents, and, therefore, making the interviewer unable to know at which stage respondents actually reported his response, and (iii) the increased degrees of freedom to set the values for design probabilities, in order to keep the total probability of reporting on at some desired level. As the use of additive randomized response models has been advocated by many authors, like Gjestvang and Singh  [14], Gupta et al.  [15], and Huang  [11,12], we plan to study the additive RRM of Gjestvang and Singh  [14] in increased numbers of randomization stages. In the next section, we present the proposed RRM.

br Gifts to the Future Reprise In the first part

Gifts to the Future: Reprise
In the first part of this paper I reminded you of the history of design research framed as the expansion of the range of foci of attention. Next I drew from the pool of knowledge from design research, organizing the very selective account around three themes conceived as “scoops from the pool.” This allowed me to expose just some of what we have learned about design reasoning by researching into it. I have deliberately drawn on what we have learned about expert performance—so situations where command of a domain and extensive experience within a discipline are factors. The contents of the “scoops” are insights into how designing gets done; these are design researchers gifts to the future.
It turns out that some of the very best designers—those highly regarded by peers and audiences beyond the profession, those who can tackle the most challenging situations, and those who can innovate radically when business as normal cannot cope—have in common that they cetp inhibitor continually challenge themselves through the ways they construct (that is, frame) the design tasks they attend to.
Erik Stolterman, writing in 1994, observed, “[D]esign learning should not be a process of conservation where an existing practice is taken for granted as the only answer….Design learning should strive towards the situation where new designers constantly reflect upon and critically examine their design practice.”
Such a body of individuals will be our salvation perhaps, gifts to the future of designers who not only bravely “descend into the swamp” but who are highly skilled in reasoning critically, and who can credibly and competently question their own, their discipline\’s and societal assumptions. It is more in this latter spirit that Tony Fry uses the phrase, gifts to the future at the end of his polemic text, Design as Politics, which I have appropriated here for more modest purposes.


An article in leading design magazine Creative Review rightfully points out that “it\’s a great time for design.” Design has never been more valued as an economic force, nor has leaf veins been as culturally influential as it is now. All types of organizations, including once-conservative management consultancies, financial organizations, and banks, have begun to adopt “design thinking” as their guiding principle and are building their internal design competencies.
The education sector further supports the field by continuously developing and introducing new design schools around the world that offer programs at all levels, from technical certificates to PhD\’s. This has contributed significantly towards the rise of the most widespread creative profession today—the designer. Design has become so popular that, according to some accounts, there are at least 2.1 million designers currently in training in China alone.

This report is a case study that examines the role of design in business and society based on current trend indicators observed across a variety of sectors such as financial management companies, multinational corporations, venture capital enterprises, and global not-for-profit organizations. The research approach here can be labeled as phenomenon-oriented, and is based on gathering and analyzing documentary evidence. The information gathered for this article has been obtained from public records and sources such as newspaper and magazine articles, interviews, corporate websites, press releases, personal blogs and social network profiles. The study has been narrowed down to include only highly prominent organizations and businesses which have been globally recognized by leading ranking lists, industry publications, and the general media. The reasoning behind this selection is that these enterprises and organizations are often perceived as being the leaders in their fields, and as such, they have the ability to influence or set global trends.

Enhancing public knowledge about antibiotic resistance and

Enhancing public knowledge about antibiotic resistance and appropriate use by educational interventions has been strongly advocated (Finch et al., 2004; Misurski et al., 2011; Ranji et al., 2008). The Infectious Diseases Society and the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America suggest education as an essential component of any programme designed to influence long-term prescribing behaviour of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pharmacist-initiated educational intervention on participants’ knowledge regarding appropriate and safe antibiotic use and resistance among adults in Jordan. The secondary objective was to evaluate the outcome of the pharmacist-initiated educational intervention on the enhancement of safer antibiotic use and reduction of self-medication.

Using a structured pre- and posteducational questionnaire, knowledge about appropriate mao inhibitors use and resistance was evaluated among a sample of adults living in Jordan. Questionnaires were developed by reviewing available content validated questionnaires in the literature (Chen et al., 2005; Ling Oh et al., 2011; McNulty et al., 2007; You et al., 2008). Questionnaires were then face validated individually by two clinical pharmacists, one statistician and one sociologist. This aimed to ensure applicability and appropriateness within the context of the Jordanian community. The questions were written with no medical jargons or difficult terminology. The questionnaires were pretested and validated on a pilot sample of 14 participants (5% of the target sample) to clarify any ambiguities.
A sample of adults (anybody who appeared to be 18years old or above) were approached and verbally informed about the study. In order to ensure variation and generalizability within the study sample with respect to background, occupation, and education, participants were recruited at different public sites including shopping malls, supermarkets, gyms, female beauty centres. Data were collected between April and July 2012. Ethical approval for conducting the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Jordan University Hospital (JUH) and the Scientific Committee at the Deanship of Scientific Research at The University of Jordan.
The intervening pharmacist engaged participant in a 10min dialogue session during which the pharmacist asked the participant to fill a pre-educational questionnaire (Table 1) assessing the background knowledge about antibiotics appropriate use and resistance. After this, the participant was verbally educated on one to one basis using educational card contained information based on the published educational materials by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Yousef et al., 2008). Additionally, the educational card included further information outlined in the previously published recommendations (Shehadeh et al., 2012; Suaifan et al., 2012). Following the education, the participant was asked to complete a posteducation questionnaire.
The pre-education questionnaire comprised of three parts (17 statements) with the choice of answering either yes or no. The first part consisted of five statements designed to evaluate knowledge regarding the appropriate use of antibiotics. The second part consisted also of five statements regarding the knowledge on safe use of antibiotics by pregnant, lactating mother, children under 8years old, if a family member is allergic to an antibiotic and as a prophylactic against infections. The final part consisted of seven statements regarding the knowledge on antibiotics resistance.
Posteducation questionnaire consisted of the same number of statements, but with slight re-wording. Statements were reworded not only to ensure authenticity of participants’ responses but also to avoid ambiguity and to ensure that the changes in responses (if any) would provide a validated tool to measure participant\’s satisfaction with the educational intervention. Details of statements rephrased in the post-education phase are shown in Table 2.

With the help of relation

With the help of relation (3.5), Eqs. (3.7) translates aswithOn using the basic state condition (3.6), the system of Eqs. (3.8), (3.9) yield the condition which relates the functions f() and g() aswhere the constant α is given asUsing the boundary conditions (2.21) and (3.10), Eqs. (2.22), (2.23) may be solved in the region .
The basic state solutions are computed from the basic relations (3.4) for three values of /U0=0.25,0.50,0.75 and presented in the tables (1)–(3).

Three examples
The differential equations (2.22) and (2.23) and the boundary conditions (2.21) and (3.8) are linear. The solution of the plane piston problem may be reduced to the following two elementary solutionsTherefore, the solution of the plane piston problem is the linear combination of the two elementary solutionswhere Ω is constant and defined asThe effect of the applied gravity on the distribution of functions f(η) and g(η) in a non-ideal flow field is presented in Figs. 1–3 for the values of Tables 1–3. In a weak gravitational field the internal and, sometimes, kinetic Trichostatin A Supplier of the gas will exhaust to overcome the applied gravity and the process is slowed down due to increase in the value of parameter of non-idealness as compared to what it would in an ideal gas. The propagation velocity of the shock wave is . The strength of the shock wave is increased if U1 is positive. Further, the expression (3.9) shows that U1 has the same sign as u1 and therefore f(η). Figs. 1–3 shows that f()≈0 for the all cases. Also, the monotonic decreasing values of g(η) from the piston η=1 to shock wave η= decreases more rapidly with an increase in the value of the parameter of non-idealness () which implies that the internal energy of the gas between the piston and shock wave exhausts more rapidly in a non-ideal gas. Further, the effect of non-idealness of the gas is to decrease the values of f(η) from piston to the shock which shows that the process of acceleration/deceleration is slowed down due to non-idealness of the gas.

Strong shock wave approximation
For the case of strong shock wave, the flow region becomes narrow, and . Consequently the system of Eqs. (2.22) and (2.23) take the following formEliminating ∂g(η)/∂η from the above equation we find the differential equation in terms of f(η) as followsThe general solution of the above differential equation is determined easily asUsing the above relation in Eq. (5.1) we determine the value of g(η) as followswhere β=1/a0, constants c1and c2 are obtained by the boundary conditions (2.21) and (3.10) asandWith the help of the original relation (2.20), the profile of the first order solution are given asWe now discuss the case of strong shock wave, i.e., /U0→0, which gives =(γ+1)/2. For γ=5/3, we havewhere the constant c1and c2 are given numerically asThe value of c1 and c2 appearing in the Eqs. (5.11) and (5.12) increases with an increase in the value of consequently the negative value of f(η) increases, and consequently the strength of the shock wave decreases. Also, the monotonic decreasing function g(η) shows further decreasing trend with an increase in the value of , therefore, the gas internal energy exhausts which agrees with the earlier results discussed in [7]. Since (−1) is much smaller than one. The analytical results presented here give the approximate solution and describes qualitatively the basic features of the influence of applied gravity in a non-ideal gas. Likewise, we derive the analytical solutions near the piston, which are expected to be more accurate. Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2) are reduced toThe gas motion will be accelerated near the piston if g(1)>0, on the other hand decelerated if g(1)<0. From the above relations it is clear that the internal energy always decreases in the region near the piston. Also, the non-idealness of the flow field contributes to decrease the internal energy further.
Results and discussion
The hyperbolic system of Eqs. (2.1), (2.2), (2.3) possesses three families of characteristics dx/dt=u, the trajectory of fluid particle, and dx/dt=u±a, the outgoing and incoming wavelets. With the help of expansion (2.11) the characteristic relations have been changed as follows