Results and discussion
In this paper, an integrated Taguchi–DEA–PCA approach is proposed for ranking GENCOs based on HSEE indicators. For ranking this sector of industry, the combination of DEA, PCA, and Taguchi is efficiently used for all GENCOs. All of the useful and influential points of these methods are used to measure the GENCO\’s performance. To recognize all economic and technical indicators (indices), a comprehensive study is conducted. In the proposed case study, Taguchi was selected as the preferred model for ranking GENCOs. In addition, the sensitivity analysis verifies the results of the proposed approach. Moreover, the most important category and factor are identified, which are environment and SO, respectively. The results of such studies would help not only top managers to have a better understanding of weak and strong points in their systems\’ performance but also help experts and researchers to determine the satisfactory levels of each subsectors\’ performances in terms of HSEE factors. In addition, the developed approach of this study could be used for continuous assessment and improvement of GENCO\’s performance in supplying iib iiia inhibitors with respect to HSEE factors. The proposed approach of this study is also compared with some of the relevant studies to show its advantages over previous ones (Table 7).
Conflicts of interest
The authors are grateful for the valuable comments and suggestions by the respected reviewers, which have enhanced the strength and significance of this work. This study was supported by a grant from Iran National Science Foundation (Grant No. 93010029). The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by Iran National Science Foundation.
KWCS has benchmarked the research methods and the research contents, and has merely modified some of the criteria such as employment type, occupation, business type, drinking, and smoking based on the master questionnaire of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) while also considering cultural differences .
Materials and methods
Based on KWCS data, we have seen rapid changes in the socio-demographic characteristics of workers. First of all, the age of workers stands out, and the Economically Activity Population Estimation and Projection (EAPEP)  published by International Labor Organization (ILO) projects that in 2020 40% of the labor force participation will be aged ≥ 50 years. In the meantime, the second KWCS shows that the proportion of those who were aged ≥ 50 years had reached 37.88%. Since an aging workforce is likely to not only have an influence on social welfare but also an increased exposure to occupational accidents, we would need institutional devices to protect those workers. Secondly, Branch migration is the increasing proportion of those who are self-employed without employees, where we witnessed a growing trend: a number of wage workers reaching the age of 50 years or older leaving corporate employment and becoming self-employed without employees. Many of these people create a new place of business and work long hours in poor working conditions in pursuit of a successful entry into the market. Accordingly, we urgently need to come up with a prevention strategy to protect these people. Thirdly, the analysis of labor quality shows that Korea, while involved in longer hours of work, registers a relatively low work intensity as compared to the countries surveyed for EWCS. Long working hours or overtime work exerts a negative influence on the balance between work and life . High work intensity may cause work–site accidents or influence health as it combines with poor working conditions. Also, pressure from speed is related to not only the psychological working conditions but also the greater likelihood of experiencing physical risks and symptoms at work places. Fourthly, it is a decrease in the exposure to physical and chemical hazards which has traditionally been a concern in the area of industrial safety and health. Especially outstanding is the decreased exposure to cigarette smoke, which is presumed to have resulted from the recent government-led smoke-free workplace campaigns. However, we saw a very high level of stress which is a psychological hazard . Fifthly, we saw a noticeable increase in complaints of muscle pain in arms and legs among other health problems in the first and second KWCS. To find the cause of this, we would need to perform in-depth studies, and at this point, we only presume that the increased complaints derive from the increase in senior workers whose bone joints and muscles are aged. As demonstrated in the results of the study, KWCS data has identified those groups that are vulnerable in terms of quality of labor, hazards, and health problems through a comparative analysis including countries of European Union that performs a quantitative measurement of working conditions. Looking ahead, KWCS continues surveys and research to ensure its application as basic data for policies. In the near future, the change of labor force from 2006 to 2010 can be investigated by indepth analysis with the consideration of the changes in industrial and occupational structure. Based on the above findings, working hours and work intensity may be cohesively analyzed in order to analyze the quality of the Korean workforce.
Results and discussion