Retomando los datos recabados sobre el Pseudoanaranjado podemos esbozar

Retomando los datos recabados sobre el Pseudoanaranjado, podemos esbozar una biografía sobre este grupo cerámico. Su aparición se ubica en la parte final de la fase Atizapán, pero se populariza en tiempos posteriores, circunscribiéndose SQ 22536 la región del valle de Toluca. Independientemente de que ha sido imposible identificar los talleres cerámicos que proporcionarían mayor información sobre el contexto de producción, es muy probable que se haya manufacturado en varios centros en el interior del valle de Toluca. La estandarización morfológica, aunada a los tamaños homogéneos, puede estar relacionada con una utilización muy específica de las vasijas. Incluso esta similitud podría remitirnos también a la producción de la cerámica en una escala mayor mediante el uso de moldes. Las similitudes y diferencias entre el Pseudoanaranjado y el Anaranjado delgado teotihuacano pueden ser interpretadas en dos sentidos: por una parte, para evidenciar el apego y necesidad de mantener su identidad con Teotihuacan y, por otra, para manifestar un rechazo o distanciamiento de su poderío, con la necesidad de autoafirmarse como una región con características propias. Por último, el ciclo de vida de esta cerámica culmina junto con el Clásico y se deja de producir durante la fase transicional de Tejalpa (ca. 600/650-700 dC), por lo que podemos constatar que su ciclo de vida fue corto y acotado a un periodo muy específico en el contexto histórico del Clásico tardío, época de cambios complejos que condujo finalmente al ocaso de Teotihuacan. Inicialmente, este auge de la ciudad se reflejó en la cultura material del valle de Toluca, puesto que los grupos dominantes trataban de evidenciar su filiación teotihuacana a través de los objetos, que otorgaban a las élites una carga de prestigio. Conforme avanzaba el proceso de desintegración, la cerámica misma manifestaba un reflejo activo del contexto social contradictorio que muestra, por un lado, un sentido de pertenencia a los cánones teotihuacanos y, por el otro, un desapego de los mismos en la búsqueda de una identidad propia.
Otro de los grupos cerámicos representativos del valle de Toluca que imita los cánones teotihuacanos es el Patrón de pulimento, caracterizado por utilizar una de las técnicas decorativas que se aplicaron en la urbe, consistente en pulir diseños sobre la vasija mediante el uso de palillos, generalmente en la pared interior de la misma. Al igual que la cerámica Pseudoanaranjado, las pastas de este grupo cerámico proceden de yacimientos locales. En cuanto a apnea sus formas, sobresalen los cajetes semiesféricos, que representan 83 % de la muestra total; los restantes están conformados por las formas curvo convergentes (10 %), los curvo divergentes (6 %) y los cajetes recto divergentes (1 %) (Zepeda 2009). Las características detectadas en esta cerámica presentan una particularidad notable en diversos aspectos tanto morfológicos como en lo que respecta a motivos decorativos. A diferencia de aquella manufacturada en Teotihuacan, la del valle de Toluca muestra casi nula variación en las formas, ya que consiste, en su totalidad, en cajetes, mientras que en la metrópoli presenta mayor variedad, por ejemplo vasos y jarras decorados mediante la técnica de pulimento zonal a palillo en determinadas partes de la vasija, como los cuellos en el caso de las jarras (figura 4).
Los elementos decorativos de estas vasijas difieren también considerablemente de los de la urbe. Además de compartir algunos motivos, como las líneas y retículas sobre todo, las vasijas del valle de Toluca presentan otros que no se han identificado en la tradición teotihuacana, como espirales, círculos concéntricos, líneas formando triángulos que probablemente corresponden a motivos fitomorfos, y algunas configuraciones que combinan dichos elementos. Cabe señalar que, comparadas con las toluquenses, las vasijas identificadas en la ciudad de Teotihuacan son de mejor calidad y presentan elementos con una composición más elaborada, como algunas flores. Otra peculiaridad de los diseños en el valle de Toluca es la abundancia de círculos concéntricos, configurados en los fondos de la vasija de manera que conforman una especie de flor. Éstos representan 44 % de la muestra total y son muy distintas a las flores de las vasijas teotihuacanas, elaboradas con mayor deliberación, pues los trazos del grupo Patrón de pulimento parecen ser mucho más rápidos e incluso hechos con cierto descuido.

Una vez que bajo la influencia de la

Una vez que, bajo la influencia de la Ilustración, la Biblia dejó de ser la principal fuente de explicación de la alteridad, las prácticas indígenas fueron dejando de ser consideradas como peligrosas y decayeron al triste rango de superstición —en el sentido que hoy damos a este término. Entonces, los defensores de la laicidad comenzaron a ver a los ritualistas exóticos como una suerte de charlatanes que abusaban de la credulidad de sus congéneres para acceder a un bienestar personal (véase Diderot en Narby y Huxley, 2001: 32). Bajo la influencia cartesiana (Descartes, 2007: 246-154; 160-173), empezó a suponerse que solo a través de la razón era posible acceder a la realidad; la percepción era vista como la Chloroquine de la cognición pero esta solo se completaba por la interacción con el mundo material. El procedimiento aquí ya no debía ser solo analógico sino, ante todo, empírico; Hume, por ejemplo, consideraba que las ‘ciencias morales’ solo debían basarse en lo que es posible conocer a través de la experiencia (véase Rodríguez Valls, 1991: 45-67). Esta fue, por ejemplo, la perspectiva adoptada por el Ministerio de la Propaganda Ateísta en el combate del chamanismo siberiano desde la consolidación de la Unión Soviética hasta bien entrada la década de 1950 (véase Hamayon, 2011) y la que aplicó el Estado liberal mexicano desde fines del siglo xix hasta principios del xx, en sus campañas de implementación de políticas sanitarias en zonas rurales (véase Page Pliego, 2002). Por extraño que parezca, encontramos que algunos antropólogos seguían pugnando por lo erróneo de la creencia hasta los últimos años de la década de 1990; tal es, por ejemplo, el caso de Lett (1997: 111-112): “Cuando los antropólogos fallan al proclamar públicamente la falsedad de las creencias religiosas, dejan de estar a la altura de sus responsabilidades éticas al respecto”.
El discurso del otro seguía siendo visto como erróneo pero los racionalistas ilustrados preferían recurrir a condicionantes biológicos para buscar las causas. Para explicar el pensamiento de los entonces ‘salvajes’, primero se acudió a determinantes ambientales (véanse Hernández en Bustamante García, 1992, 324; De Pauw (1768); Buffon en Novoa Cain, 2002: 21; Humboldt, 1966: 57), luego, con la frenología, se optó por las de carácter fisiológico (véanse Olivier y Mondragón, 2011: 94; López Ramos, 1999: 240), más tarde, bajo la influencia de Darwin y Mendel, por la herencia y la raza (Urías Horcasitas, 2007: 42) y, por último, se apeló a ionic bond la coexistencia de humanidades en diferentes estadios de evolución. Engels (2012: 12-16), por ejemplo, sugería que el hábitat y la dieta estaban directamente ligados al grado de desarrollo de las diferentes sociedades. Lévy-Bruhl (1957) y Freud (1999: 188) atribuían la condición de primitivo a un desarrollo psíquico tan deficiente que los conducía a pensar de manera psicótica. Siguiendo una tónica semejante, no faltó quien considerara a los especialistas rituales como verdaderos locos que, al socializar sus alucinaciones, influían en la manera en que sus congéneres concebían el mundo (Lewitzky, 1957: 53-54; Devereux, 1972). Y quien viera a los chamanes como seres que, al recurrir a estados de conciencia alterada —una especie de locura temporal—, accedían a realidades poco visibles para los legos (Eliade, 1986; Harner, 1980).
Franz Boas y la escuela relativista rompen con el paradigma evolucionista y renuncian a tratar de ver a las sociedades como producto de leyes universales que, en diferentes épocas y regiones, tienden a producir idénticos resultados. A principios del siglo xx, el sabio germano-americano rechazó categóricamente el valor analítico de la raciología y propuso que, en lugar de estudiar las relaciones entre la cultura y sus posibles determinantes biológicos, “deberíamos tratar a la humanidad como un todo y estudiar los tipos culturales prescindiendo de la raza” (Boas, 1964 [1911]: 31-33). La idea central de su tesis es que un grupo humano solo puede ser comprendido a partir del estudio de sus propios elementos constitutivos y su devenir histórico-social. El discurso del otro deja entonces de estar en tela de juicio pues se entiende que este solo puede tener sentido en tanto se integra a un complejo cultural más amplio.

br Discussion False penile fractures are caused by bleeding

Discussion
False penile fractures are caused by bleeding within the soft Dig-11-utp of the penis, while tunica albuginea is intact. This may be due to injury to penile dorsal artery, deep dorsal vein, superficial dorsal vein, or nonspecific dartos bleeding [2]. In the largest study of false penile fractures, Bar‐Yosef et al. reported that nine out of 17 procedures done for false penile fractures had dorsal vein rupture [3]. Feki et al. reported 16 patients with false penile fracture, and 10 cases had nonspecific dartos bleeding and reported ecchymosis in the pubic and scrotal area [1]. El‐Assmy et al. reported an absence of snapping sound and gradual postinjury detumesence in 88% and 17.7% of his patients, respectively [4]. Although present in false penile fractures, Bar‐yosef et al. reported extensive hematoma and penile shaft deviations were more common in true penile fracture [3].
The use of imaging modalities during the workup of penile fractures has been debated extensively. Ultrasonography, with or without color Doppler, cavernosography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have all been utilized with mixed results. Ultrasonography can be helpful in localization of injury, but the accuracy of the results depends on the proficiency of the ultrasonographer [4]. However, it can give false negative results when the tear is small [5]. MRI gives the best results for soft tissue evaluation, but it is cost‐prohibitive, and availability restricts its use [4,6]. Cavernosography has also been used, but the drawback is that it is an invasive procedure with increased risk of infections, allergic reaction to contrast [5-7].
Conservative management has been described for management of false penile fracture when the practitioner is certain that there are no cavernosal injuries. This includes the use of penile splinting with pressure dressing, ice packs, and analgesics [4]. Studies have demonstrated that conservative management for false penile fracture can lead to abscess formation, scar or plaque formation, and erectile dysfunction [8-10]. Surgical exploration, evacuation of hematoma, and ligation of the bleeding vessel lead to satisfactory results and preservation of erectile function in the majority of the patients with venous injury without any complications reported at this time [3].

In the next section we state the model and define

In the next section, we state the model and define the local optimum and global optimum probabilities. In the Section  3, we try to express the necessity of using a modified simulated annealing for large general networks and compare it with the Tabu search algorithm. Section  4 contains some numerical examples for both tree and general networks with different numbers of nodes. After that, a sensitivity analysis is performed in Section  5, and finally, Section  6 contains the conclusion and future research.

Model formulation and optimality probability index
Suppose that there is a graph, , with demand points on it. The set of the points is and the set of the links between the points is . for each node, , the weight (or demand) has normal distribution with a mean of , a standard deviation of and a deterministic construction cost, . Weights cannot be negative, so, we need to ensure that negative weights are negligible. In real problems, the demand of a gssg (a city for example) can affect other nodes demands (other cities). So, we define a correlation coefficient, , between and , as demands of nodes and , respectively, to consider the problem in a more realistic situation. We want to find the probability of optimality for each node. So, we define:

The objective function value for node is calculated as: The global optimum probability can be found by considering all nodes. The node with the smallest value of the objective function is the best node, so, the probability that node is global optimum, , based on Drezner and Shiode  [18] can be calculated as below: For calculating these multivariate normal distribution function parameters, a univariate distribution for node can be considered, which is , with a mean of and a variance of .
The correlation coefficient between and can be calculated as follows: By standardizing the distribution, the probability can be calculated as: whose correlation matrix is computed by Eq. (3).
Eq. (4) can be used to find the most probable node for both general and tree networks. But, it can be shown that in a tree network, the local optimum probability is equal to global one. So, we can calculate local optimum probabilities to save time.
To find the local optimum probability for a given node, , the value of the objective function must be calculated by moving the location along all of the connected links to neighboring nodes. So, node is local optimum, if, by moving along links, these values do not decrease. The local optimum probability at node , based on Drezner and Shiode  [18], is: To calculate parameters for Eq. (5), a univariate distribution for node can be considered as , with a mean of and a variance of .
The correlation coefficient between and is calculated by Eq. (3), where node and node are members of .
By standardizing the distribution, Eq. (5) can be rewritten as: whose correlation matrix is computed by Eq. (3).
Now, suppose that weights have another distribution rather than normal. In these cases, first, we can use the NORTA inverse method  [20] to convert weights to normal ones and then solve the problem using the proposed method. The normal to anything method (NORTA)  [21] generates a -dimensional random vector , where has an arbitrary cumulative distribution function, , and correlation matrix. The NORTA vector, , can be generated by transforming a -dimensional standard multivariate normal vector with correlation matrix , as below: where is the cumulative distribution function of a univariate standard normal.
The NORTA inverse method can transform a vector of multi attribute variables to a multivariate normal distribution by the following formula: To use the NORTA inverse method, we can produce some random values from weight distribution by considering its means, variances and correlation coefficients at first. Then, we find probability values of the simulated data. After that, using the inverse of normal distribution, the values can be transformed to normal with desired mean and variance matrices and then we can find its correlation coefficient matrix.

Fig depicts the wavelength dependent

Fig. 3 depicts the wavelength dependent modal birefringence, where η=0.6. It can be evidently seen that the proposed PCF2 structure shows higher birefringence than the proposed PCF1 structure. In addition, it is clear from the Fig. 3 that the birefringence values are gradually increasing with the operating wavelength.
The Fig. 4(a)–(c) illustrate the resultant 2D views of mode field profiles in x- and y-Polarized modes with the variation of the ellipticity constant η, where the operating wavelength is set to 1.3μm. It can be observed that the fundamental mode is more strongly bonded in the core region of PCF2 than the PCF1. Therefore, there is a significant affect of the formation of cladding air holes on field profiles. It can also be seen from the Fig. 4 that for the both proposed structures, the birefringence is decreasing when the ellipticity constant η is increasing. Our calculations show that the modal birefringence values of the proposed PCF1 and PCF2 are 1.90×10 and 2.822×10 respectively at the wavelength λ=1.3μm with the optimized design parameters. This result indicates that rotated hexagonal cladding improves the birefringence of the proposed structure. Moreover, the birefringence of the proposed PCF2 is higher than the acquired birefringence in a recently published research article for liquid sensing application [31].
The measurement of mode confinement of the guided light is one of the key parameters of PCF based devices. The electromagnetic radiation propagates through the proposed PCF structures. However, a small portion of the incident Ion Channel Compound Library is leaking out of the core. Hence, the confinement losses of the proposed PCFs need to be measured to evaluate their performance. Fig. 5(a) presents the confinement loss curves of the proposed PCF structures as a function of the operating wavelength. On the other hand, Fig. 5(b) depicts the effect of the ellipticity constant η on the confinement losses of both the proposed PCF structures. Moreover, with an inquiry of Fig. 5(b), it is clear that the confinement losses decrease with an increase of the ellipticity constant value of the core holes. The confinement losses of the PCF1 and PCF2 are 2.87×10dB/m and 1.62×10dB/m respectively, when λ=1.3μm and η=0.6. In case of Ethanol as the supplementary core material, the calculated confinement losses for both the proposed PCFs are lower than the previously published articles [1,3,11,31].
The relative sensitivity coefficient is one of the most vital parameters for PCF based sensing devices. As presented before in Fig. 5 that the fundamental mode of the proposed PCF having rotated hexagonal cladding is more confined than the proposed PCF having conventional hexagonal cladding. Hence, the interaction between light and the analyte (Ethanol) in the core region of the proposed PCF2 structure is expected to be higher than the proposed PCF1 structure. Fig. 6(a) shows the wavelength dependent relative sensitivity coefficient r for Ethanol detection, where η=0.6 is fixed. It is evidently seen from the Fig. 6(a) that the relative sensitivity coefficient is increasing according to the operating wavelength. Moreover, Fig. 6(b) represents the relationship between relative sensitivity and the ellipticity constant of the core holes of the proposed PCF structures. Furthermore, endodermis can be clearly seen that the relative sensitivity is increasing when the ellipticity constant values are increasing. In addition, at the wavelength λ=1.3μm and η=0.6, the relative sensitivity coefficient values of the proposed PCF1 and PCF2 are 44.29% and 53.35% accordingly. Therefore, it is clear that rotated hexagonal cladding of the proposed PCF improves sensitivity approximately 20%. In addition, the proposed PCF2 shows higher sensitivity than the acquired sensitivity in the previously proposed PCF structures in case of liquid sensing applications [1,3,11,31].
Fig. 7 represents the effective mode area values of the proposed PCF1 and PCF2 by varying the operating wavelength. It shows that the effective mode area A increases with the wavelength. The reason behind that, when the wavelength increases the modes are leaking through the air holes. However, it can also be seen from the Fig. 7 that PCF1 shows larger effective area than PCF2. It can be seen that at the wavelength λ=1.3μm and the ellipticity constant η=0.6, the effective mode area values of the proposed PCF1 and PCF2 are 7.5782μm2 and 3.9328μm2 respectively.

br Introduction br Classification of oral pigmentations

Introduction

Classification of oral pigmentations
Kauzman et al. [8] proposed a Classification based on the distribution of the pigmentation.
Diffuse and bilateral
Focal
Physiologic Melanotic Lesions.
Physiologic Pigmentation (Racial).
Racial pigmentation of oral mucosa is the most common cause of oral pigmentation; however it is not directly related to the color of the gallic acid [9–11]. The pigmentation is symmetrically distributed, especially on the gingival [Fig. 1] and buccal mucosa, on the hard palate, lips and tongue may also be seen as brown patches with well-defined borders. Gaeta et al. [3] stated that it is more common in African, Asian and Mediterranean populations. This increase in pigmentation is due to increase in melanocyte activity and not due to greater number of melanocytes. The degree of gingival pigmentation is directly related to skin pigmentation. In light skinned individuals gingiva is mostly non-pigmented but in dark skinned people the chance of having pigmented gingiva is extremely high [4]. It is seen during the first two decades of life but may not come to the patient׳s attention until later. The color ranges from light to dark brown. The attached gingiva is the most common site, where it appears as a bilateral, well-demarcated, ribbon-like, dark brown band that usually spares the marginal gingiva [1]. The pigmentation is asymptomatic therefore no treatment is required. Since these lesions are considered physiological so there are no chances of malignant transformation, having said this, it is critical to differentiate between normal and premalignant lesions.

Chemically induced melanosis

Disease-associated melanosis

Focal pigmentation

Discussion
Intraoral pigmentations could be focal, diffuse or multifocal. They may be black, gray, blue, purple or brown in color. They may be flat or swollen. They can be localized accumulations of melanin, hemosiderin, exogenous metal or some are even indications of an internal disease. The differential diagnosis can be lengthy in certain conditions with multiple and complex lesions with pigmentations. Although biopsy is a helpful aid to diagnosis for localized lesions, the more diffuse lesions will require a thorough history and laboratory studies in order to arrive at a definitive diagnosis [8]. Thorough examination of the oral pigmentation together with complete history and clinical findings are necessary for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Even though only a few lesions are reported to undergo malignant transformation, yet this limited data regarding malignancy transformation in oral lesions cannot be simply ruled out. All general practitioners should have thorough knowledge in order to establish a probable differential diagnosis as well as definitive diagnosis for prompt treatment. In case of a doubt referral to specialist is recommended.

Conclusion

Introduction
The main aim of periodontal therapy is to achieve predictable regeneration of the periodontal tissues in areas previously affected by disease. Teeth affected by periodontal disease are exposed to bacterial products from the plaque and calculus and such teeth become hypermineralized and contaminated with the endotoxins as well as other toxic bacterial products [1]. Such a surface does not encourage cell attachment or migrations which are necessary events for optimal spontaneous periodontal healing [2]. Decontamination of these diseased root surfaces is not possible exclusively with mechanical instrumentation (i.e. by scaling and root planning alone), because it often leads to creation of a smear layer [3,4]. The smear layer may range in thickness from 2 to 15μm and serve as a physical barrier between the periodontal tissues and the root surface inhibiting new connective tissue attachment to the root surface [5,6]. Therefore the root surfaces must be devoid of any smear layer in order to facilitate periodontal healing through regeneration or new attachment [6]. Conditioning of the root surface after scaling and root planning with various acids and chelating agents has been advocated as an effective procedure for smear layer removal and detoxification. Root conditioning with various chemical agents is seen as an adjunct to mechanical root therapy and has been performed as early as the latter half of the 19th century. Till now a variety of chemicals like EDTA, phosphoric acid, citric acid, and tetracycline have been tested in this direction but none has come out as a gold standard. Among these chemicals citric acid and tetracycline HCl have shown to have additional effect of demineralizing the root surface, removing the smear layer and exposing collagen matrix of the mineralized radicular dentin [7,8]. Tetracyclines comprise a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, which is effective against many species of periodontal pathogens. Besides its antimicrobial effectiveness, this group of drugs has other special properties which include its anti-inflammatory action, collagenase inhibition, bone resorption inhibition and its ability to improve fibroblast attachment. Tetracyclines are still used in association with bone grafting and as conditioner agents for the root surface, and they enhance periodontal tissue regeneration [9,10]. The substantivity of tetracyclines is another important property for periodontal therapy. This property allows the substance to affix to a substrate and realize slow release, which is important in maintaining the antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial properties acting on the periodontal tissues for an extended time, when the drug is locally applied after periodontal instrumentation [7,10]. Even though some studies have demonstrated that the use of citric acid as root conditioner agent is similar to tetracycline [8,11] this substance has no antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory properties [12]. A combination of citric acid and tetracycline along with a detergent is found in a present day endodontic irrigant MTAD (mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent). The introduction of MTAD by Torabinejad et al. in 2003 [12] represents an advance in endodontic irrigation research. The tetracycline present in MTAD is doxycycline hyclate, acid is citric acid and the detergent is Tween-80 (polysorbate-80). MTAD has been reported to remove smear layer effectively, eliminate microbes that are resistant to conventional endodontic irrigants and dressings, and provide sustained antimicrobial activity [13–15]. Thus MTAD can be seen as a potential root conditioning and smear layer removal agent.

Mangroves at the intersection of terrestrial estuarine and near shore

Mangroves at the intersection of terrestrial, estuarine and near shore marine R115777 have immense ecological and economic significance. The ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests are worth at least US$1.6 billion per year worldwide (Field et al., 1998; Costanza et al., 1997). This dynamic and unique ecosystem is increasingly threatened and depleted. The conservation of mangroves is of utmost importance in order to maintain the health of this fragile environment. Loss of evolutionary unique species in the mangrove ecosystem has been reported and DNA barcoding provided phylogenetic information for developing unified mangrove management plan worldwide (Daru et al., 2013). The Sunderbans is the single largest block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest listed in the UNESCO world heritage list (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list). It is regarded as the world’s largest natural nursery where a large number of marine and estuarine species come to breed and the juveniles stay back to exploit its rich natural resources (Trivedi et al., 2013). In a study conducted in the Sunderbans mangrove ecosystem, molecular methods based on rbcL subunit of RuBisCO enzyme were used for identification of phytoplankton groups lesser than 10μm size (Bhattacharjee et al., 2013).

DNA barcoding of marine algae
Different species of red marine macro algae are often difficult to identify by using morphological techniques. Two molecular markers namely mitochondrial COI gene and UPA (Universal Plastid Amplicon) domain V of the 23S rRNA gene were used for identification of different species of red alga belonging to the family Kallymeniaceae. Results showed that COI was a more sensitive marker and led to the discovery of a new species Euthora timburtonii (Clarkston and Saunders, 2010). A similar study was conducted involving inter tidal red macro algae in China with three molecular markers – COI, UPA and ITS (nuclear internal transcribed spacer). Although COI was effective to identify species but not all species gave successful amplicons due to lack of universal primers. UPA had effective universal primers but showed problems with closely related species, while ITS was the least effective (Xiaobo et al., 2013).
Gracilariaceae is a red algal family which is commercially important for its use in biotechnology and microbiology research as a phycocolloid agar. Gracilaria species are difficult to identify morphologically and DNA barcoding holds promise in species level identification (Kim et al., 2010). Recently, a novel microalga was isolated and characterized from Indian Ocean which has biofuel potential. In this study 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA were used as barcode (Ahmad et al., 2013). DNA barcoding can be useful as a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for monitoring programs of marine and coastal ecosystems for detecting Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) species.

DNA barcoding of marine zooplanktons
Zooplanktons have great ecological significance and represent 15 animal groups (phyla). Therefore, DNA barcoding of zooplanktons is an important aspect of modern ecological studies. Census for Marine Zooplanktons (CMarZ) is devoted to the study of global zooplankton assemblages. The DNA Barcoding Centers of CMarZ are located in UConn (USA), Bremerhaven (Germany), ORI (Japan), Qingdao (China) and Goa (India). Fig. 1 shows the five CMarZ barcoding centers of the world. Barcode analysis using COI gene involving 52 specimens of 14 species of chaetognaths could successfully discriminate different species of chaetognaths across the phylum. The average K2P distance within species was 0.0145. Among the marine zooplanktons the copepods are one of the most systematically complex and ecologically significant groups with more than 2500 species. Several studies have been conducted on this diverse group. The occurrence of cryptic species is widespread among the copepods which necessitates more DNA barcoding studies. Some important publications on DNA barcoding of marine copepods are shown in Table 4.

br Materials and methods Venom from Naja naja was

Materials and methods
Venom from Naja naja was purchased from Irula Co-operative Society Ltd., Chennai, India. All other reagents and chemicals used were of analytical grades purchased from Sisco Research Laboratories (SRL), Bangalore, India.

Results and discussion
Snake venom PLA2s belonging to elapidae family are known to be multi-toxic and lethal (Doley et al., 2010; Kini, 2003). Due to the prominent role of PLA2s play in snake envenomation, there is enormous pharmacological interest in search of PLA2 inhibitors (Narendra Sharath Chandra et al., 2007; Nanda et al., 2007). Further, considering the limitations of antiserum therapy (Dhananjaya et al., 2011; Girish and Kemparaju, 2011), it is justified that research has to focus on developing alternatives and in this regard finding inhibitors of the multi-toxic svPLA2s from medicinal plants have gained much interest in the recent past (Carvalho et al., 2013; Gomes et al., 2012). Although many sPLA2 inhibitors have been isolated from various medicinal plants (Springer, 2001; Nanda et al., 2007; Narendra Sharath Chandra et al., 2007), however, still effective and specific inhibitors of sPLA2 are not available. In these line of studies, the aqueous steam thapsigargin Supplier extract of M. indica is evaluated for its potential to inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2) belonging to group IA i.e. NN-XIb-PLA2, which was isolated from R. viper venom as per the previously described method (Rudrammaji and Gowda, 1998).
The sPLA2 belonging to group IA i.e. NN-XIb-PLA2 gave a specific activity of around 172.4±3.1, when measured using PC as substrate (Table 1). When pre-incubated with different concentration of extract it was observed that the aqueous extract of M. indica, inhibited the enzymatic activity in a concentration dependent manner as shown in Fig. 1. The results show that the extent of inhibition was >95% at the 40μg/ml of extract used. The IC50 values calculated by linear XY scattered plot were 7.6μg/ml (Table 1). Most of the sPLA2 inhibitors are known to inhibit the activity either by binding to substrate or by chelating calcium, which is required for activity. Also, it is observed that the sPLA2 inhibitors affect the “Quality of interface” by modifying the phospholipid bilayer properties which render the phospholipids inaccessible to the enzyme. The steroid inducible inhibitors of PLA2 like lipocortin I and II are shown to inhibit PLA2s by nonspecific binding to the membrane thapsigargin Supplier phospholipids. It is observed that their inhibition is relieved by increasing the substrate concentration (Davidson et al., 1987). In this study, it was observed that, when examined as a function of substrate concentration, there was no relieve of inhibition of the extract pre-incubated, as the substrate concentration was increased from 20 to 120nM (Fig. 2). This suggests that the inhibition is independent of substrate concentration. Further, in the calcium dependent activity test, it was observed that an increase in calcium concentration from 2.5 to 15mM, increased NN-XIb-PLA2 enzymatic activity in a dose dependent manner. However, while when IC50 concentration of M. indica extract was used along with varying concentration of calcium, there was no relieve of inhibition (Fig. 3), suggesting that the inhibition by M. indica extract is independent on calcium concentration. These all studies show that inhibition by aqueous extract of M. indica is independent on substrate and calcium concentration. Further, it is reported that some of the PLA2 inhibitors are shown to mediate displacement of catalytically essential calcium from the enzyme and thus inhibition of enzymatic activity (Pruzanski et al., 1992). In the calcium binding studies experiments, it was found that the PLA2 enzyme activity both before and after the dialysis of the enzyme inhibitor mixture was unaltered i.e., the % of inhibitory activity of M. indica extract was not decreased upon extensive dialysis, suggesting that the inhibition is irreversible, supporting the observation that inhibition by M. indica extract is independent on substrate and calcium concentration. These studies indicate that the inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components/molecules present in M. indica extract at active site residues of the sPLA2 enzyme. NN-XIb-PLA2 enzyme exhibited indirect hemolytic activity, which is an indirect way of measuring PLA2 activity using egg yolk and washed erythrocytes are used as substrates. When the effect of aqueous extract of M. indica at different concentrations (0–40μg/ml) was tested it was found that the extract in general effectively inhibited indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40μg/ml concentration (Fig. 4). This in situ inhibition activity is well correlated with the inhibitory activity of the in vitro PLA2 enzyme. Therefore, the inhibition of NN-XIb-PLA2 activity by molecules in M. indica extract could be attributed to the modulation of the catalytic activity of PLA2 at the interface itself, i.e., beyond the initial steps of enzyme adsorption and activation, probably through modifications of the intermolecular organization of the membrane components. It is well known that secretory PLA2s cause cell membrane asymmetry by degradation of glycerol phospholipids of the membranes.

GLPG0634 Oliveira et al investigated the surface roughness

Oliveira et al. (2008) investigated the surface roughness of HC and AC resins after submitting them to mechanical polishing (MP) and chemical polishing (CP). They concluded that MP produced lower surface roughness mean values than CP and is not influenced by the acrylic resin type. In contrast, Berger et al. (2006) reported that AC acrylic resin performed less favorably in terms of surface roughness than MP. Rahal et al. (2004) evaluated the influence of MP and CP on surface roughness of HC and AC resins. Their results lead them to conclude the following: MP produced smoother surface than CP and surface roughness was not influenced by acrylic resin type. However, CP results were dependant on acrylic resin type. Radford et al. (1999) reported that acrylic resin has been less frequently investigated for its surface roughness and effect of polishing than other dental materials.

Materials and methods

Results
The mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values of surface roughness between MP and CP for HC and AC materials are presented in Table 1. The mean roughness values for the combination of polishing technique and material in decreasing order are: CP-HC=1.4132μm; CP-AC=1.3494μm; MP-AC=0.7364μm and MP-HC=0.6333μm.
Two way ANOVA showed that surface roughness was influenced by the polishing procedures significantly (P<.0001) and not by the acrylic resin materials (see Table 2). There was no significant difference between MP-AC and MP-HC as well as between CP-AC and CP-HC. However, a significant difference in surface roughness was found between all other combinations (P<.0001) as shown in Table 3.
Discussion
Polished surface of acrylic resin denture material is important, as it affects the oral health of GLPG0634 that are in direct GLPG0634 contact. Rough surfaces of oral appliances promote colonization of bacteria and plaque accumulation (Quirynen et al., 1990; Verran and Maryan, 1997; Bollen et al., 1997). The threshold surface roughness for bacterial attachment was reported to be 0.2μm (Quirynen et al., 1990). Surface roughness values more than 0.2μm may promote plaque formation. Bollen et al. (1997) and Radford et al. (1999) reported that high concentration of bacterial colonization occurs if the surface roughness value is greater than 2.0μm. The authors considered that characterization of smooth acrylic resin surface may vary between 0.03μm and 0.75μm depending upon the technique used for finishing and polishing (Bollen et al., 1997; Radford et al., 1999). The results of this study showed that the mean surface roughness values for MP of HC acrylic resin was 0.6333μm and 0.7364μm for CP of AC acrylic resin. The mean values found in this study agree with the range reported by Busscher et al. (1984), Oliveira et al. (2008) and Radford et al. (1999).
Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrated that the surface roughness of MP-HC acrylic resin was not significantly different from MP-AC acrylic resin although superior surface characteristics of HC acrylic resin may be expected due to higher degree of conversion of monomer compared to AC acrylic resin which is concurring with that of Oliveira et al. (2008). Also, MP produced lower surface roughness values than CP for both types of acrylic resins. This finding is in agreement with the results of other studies (Ulusoy et al., 1986; Rahal et al., 2004; Oliveira et al., 2008; Berger et al., 2006). These results were expected because the abrasive mechanical action progressively removes surface notches during polishing.
The polishability of the surface with chemical polishing method may be explained by the penetration of the polishing liquid, which contains methyl-methacrylate monomer molecules, through the superficial polymeric chain of acrylic resin breaking the secondary bonds that join them, promoting a final plasticizing effect of the acrylic resin surface. This superficial layer has no effect on the under lying irregularities caused by finishing procedures (Rahal et al., 2004). It is interesting to note that there was no significant difference in surface roughness values between HC and AC acrylic resin specimens subjected to mechanical polishing, although the surface of AC specimens being more porous than HC resin where a higher surface roughness should be expected.

Several limitations in this study and future research

Several limitations in this study and future research directions should be noted. Firstly, the cross-sectional nature of this study only allowed for measurement of preferences for workplace assistance with reaching a healthy weight. Future research should aim to longitudinally assess if employee and work characteristics are associated with both preference for workplace assistance and participation in weight management programs. Secondly, given the organizational constraints of survey length it was not possible to include additional questions to identify whether employees who did not report a preference for assistance perceived they were able to reach a healthy weight independently. Future research could include additional measures to determine if individuals who do not want workplace assistance: (1) already receiving external assistance; (2) feel competent in independently reaching a healthy weight; or (3) would like assistance but do not want their employer to be aware of their current health status. Thirdly, given that this research was conducted in a male-dominated mining industry, the findings may not generalize to the general working prostaglandin e or female-dominated industries. Future research is needed to identify if women or employees from other industries, such as health care, report similar preferences for health assistance or proactively seek assistance before reaching levels of obesity. Finally, while BMI is an established measure used to classify individuals into weight categories [29], the authors recognize that the use of self-reported height and weight may result in some inaccuracies. Although organizational constraints prevented the researchers from collecting actual bio measurements in this study, it is recommended that future research collect height, weight, and subcutaneous fat measurements to achieve more precise body composition categorization.

Conclusion

Conflicts of interest

Acknowledgments
The authors wish to acknowledge the generous corporate and community supporters who donated to the Wesley Medical Research to advance health and medical research and fund this research. They would also like to thank the QUT Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety, Queensland, for generously awarding funding for the preparation of this manuscript. The study sponsors had no role in any part of preparing, conducting, writing, or submitting of this manuscript.

Introduction
Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with a reduced risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease [1,2]. In the second term of National Health Promotion in the 21st century (Healthy Japan 21), PA is ranked as a leading health indicator. Healthy Japan 21 announced the goals of increasing both the mean number of steps per day of adults and the percentage of individuals who perform regular PA [3]. Under Healthy Japan 21, regular PA is defined as exercising for ≥ 30 minutes at least twice per week continuously for at least 1 year. According to the 2014 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the mean number of steps per day of Japanese men and women was 7,043 and 6,015 [4], respectively; below the daily target level of 10,000 steps [5]. Moreover, only 31.2% of men and 25.1% of women performed regular PA [4].
Most employed adults spend about half of each working day at the workplace; therefore, the workplace is a key setting to promote PA [3,6]. Recent systematic reviews on effective approaches for increasing PA among workers recommend a tailor-made behavior modification program catered to each individual [7]. Many tailor-made behavior modification programs incorporate practical components and strategies based on behavioral science, including goal-setting, self-monitoring, and self-efficacy (SE) [8]. The components of health programs for increasing PA have diversified and now combine practical components and strategies, resulting in a wide variation in the types of participants, duration, and provision of direct (face-to-face) and indirect (non-face-to-face) support [9–11].