Nanotechnology for clinical laboratory diagnostics – salient points

With advances in diagnostic technologies, doctors will be able to give patients complete health checks quickly and routinely. If any medication is required this will be tailored specifically to the individual based on their genetic makeup, thus preventing unwanted side-effects. As a result, the health system will become preventative rather than curative

Insight of nano diagnostics

The biological application of nano-particles is a rapidly developing area of nanotechnology that raises new possibilities in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases .The application of nanotechnology in the medical field must conform to requirements for public health, safety and environmental protection An important point is that, basically, what safeguards are needed with regard to a new technology depends mainly on the way it will be used.

The field of nano diagnostics raises certain ethical concerns related with the testing of blood.

Acknowledgment

Introduction

It is well documented that regular physical exercise has many beneficial effects, and is an effective means for preventing chronic diseases (Goto et al., 2004; Warburton et al., 2006; Araújo et al., 2011). However, strenuous physical exercise is associated with a dramatic increase in oxygen uptake both by the whole body and particularly by the skeletal muscle (Bejma and Ji, 1999). Oxygen usage increases with increasing metabolic activity and the results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (Powers and Jackson, 2008). Production of ROS in quantities that overwhelm the endogenous antioxidant defense system has been referred to as oxidative stress, which can lead to the destruction of tissue and cell NSC23766 Supplier such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (Jówko et al., 2011). There is growing evidence that exercise-induced oxidative stress may be associated with muscle fatigue, muscle damage, and a decrease in physical performance (Kim et al., 2008; Wei and Jin, 2011; Shan et al., 2011).

Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst), a popular medicinal mushroom, is a basidiomycete belonging to the polyporaceae. Its fruiting body is called “Lingzhi” in China and “Reishi” in Japan (Zhang et al., 2003). For hundreds of years, this mushroom has been regarded as a folk medicine used for the prevention and treatment of various human diseases, such as hepatitis, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, cancer and others in China (Berovic et al., 2003; Boh et al., 2007). In the past few years, many studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive components in G. lucidum are polysaccharides (Gl-PS), ganoderic acid (triterpene), and adenosine, while the Gl-PS are the major source of its biological activity and therapeutic use (Zhang et al., 2002; Sanodiya et al., 2009). Previous evidences showed that Gl-PS have anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities (Lin and Zhang, 2004; Li et al., 2011; Zhao et al., 2012). Our previous studies also have demonstrated that Gl-PS has anti-fatigue effects (Zhao et al., 2013), but the effects of Gl-PS on exercise-induced oxidative stress have not been investigated so far. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Gl-PS against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle tissues of mice.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

The present work has been designed to determine the effects of G. lucidum polysaccharides on exhaustive swimming exercise-induced Oxidative stress by noting the SOD, GPX and CAT activities as well as by the MDA levels in skeletal muscle tissues of mice. The antioxidant defense systems of the living body consist of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant nutrients, which may be involved in reducing oxidative stress (Lee et al., 2009). Principal antioxidant enzymes include SOD, GPX and CAT. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. GPX is a selenoenzyme which catalyzes the reduction of hydroperoxides at the expense of reduced glutathione. CAT is a primary antioxidant defense component that works to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water, sharing this function with GPX (Apel and Hirt, 2004). The significant decrease in the activities of SOD, GPX and CAT in the muscle, liver tissues and blood after exhaustive exercise may be an indication of oxidative stress (Powers and Jackson, 2008). In the present study, the data showed that GL-PS promote increases in the activities of SOD, GPX and CAT in skeletal muscle of mice, and the high-dose GL-PS (200mg/kg body weight) presented the best effect. These results indicated that GL-PS was able to up-regulate antioxidant enzyme activities in skeletal muscle to protect against oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise.

## br Conflict of interest br Introduction

Conflict of interest

Introduction

The term intermediate uveitis (IU) refers to a subgroup of uveitis in which the vitreous is the site of greatest inflammation. When IU is accompanied by snowbanks or snowballs, the condition is referred to as pars planitis.

Patients with IU may present with inflammation in the anterior chamber (which is generally minimal) and peripheral vascular sheathing.

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a greater frequency of IU compared with the general population. According to the publications we consulted, between 0.4% and 26.9% of patients with MS develop uveitis, and between 7.8% and 14.8% of patients with IU develop MS. However, other diseases are associated with IU, including Lyme disease, syphilis, cat scratch disease, and sarcoidosis.

Case report

Conspicuous in the fundus of the eye was a hyperemic, slightly elevated optic disk, with ischemic pallor of the retina at the posterior pole that was compatible with acute CRAO and a preserved cilioretinal artery (Fig. 1A). Likewise, there was vascular sheathing and vitritis with snowballs.

The fluorescein angiogram showed mild signs of retinal vasculitis, retinal arterial filling delay, diffuse retinal capillary non-perfusion in the posterior pole compatible with CRAO. Preservation of the retinal circulation around the cilioretinal artery was visible, as was tachykinin receptor leakage from the optic disk in the subsequent frames (Fig. 1B–C). The macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed increased retinal reflectivity consistent with CRAO (Fig. 2).

Given the presence of typical periventricular demyelinating lesions (some showing contrast uptake) in the cranial and orbital MRI, as well as slight enhancement of the optic nerve after contrast injection, it was believed that the patient might have had optic neuritis in addition to uveitis (Fig. 3). Consequently, treatment was initiated with intravenous methylprednisolone, 1g every 24h for three days (single dose), followed by a tapered oral dose (1mg/kg tapered gradually in 2weeks). Likewise, topical treatment was initiated using a corticosteroid in the RE (prednisolone acetate drops three times a day, gradually reducing the dose in 4weeks).

Goldmann’s visual field revealed a residual central and temporal islet in the RE and normal findings in the LE (Fig. 4).

During two years of follow-up, the patient remained clinically stable. However, the appearance of new periventricular lesions on subsequent MRIs, combined with the suspicion of initial optic neuritis, has led to the diagnosis of MS and the initiation of treatment with interferon beta-1 by the Neurology Service (Fig. 5).

Discussion

The IU associated with MS is characterized by the presence of pars planitis (occasionally accompanied by anterior uveitis) and the presence of peripheral retinal vasculitis in the form of periphlebitis (venous sheathing) in 6–26% of patients.

In the majority of patients, these retinal vessel changes are asymptomatic. Regardless, certain studies have shown that the presence of peripheral vascular disease in a patient with isolated sheathing in typical optic neuritis may predict the development of MS in the future, with a relative risk of 11.4%. Other studies have linked the presence of vascular sheathing with the severity of the neurological dysfunction in MS patients.

Nonetheless, despite the fact that in the majority of patients, these retinal vascular changes are asymptomatic, there are numerous publications demonstrating a spectrum that ranges from simple peripheral retinal periphlebitis to the presence of peripheral occlusive retinal vasculitis in 6.5% of patients. This condition leads to other complications, such as retinal ischemia, neovascularization, retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, or neovascular glaucoma.

The pathogenic mechanism that occurs in retinal vasculitis is that of infiltration of the retinal venules by T-cell lymphocytes, of which 35–90% are CD4+.

## Similar analysis with H FABP

Similar analysis with H-FABP shows a positive correlation with window period, hs-Trop T (r=0.229, P=0.004), and hs-CRP (r=0.986, p<0.001). There was no correlation between H-FABP and important parameters like age, TIMI score, and ejection fraction.
There was no statistically significant difference of H-FABP and hs-CRP values between patients with or without mortality (p=0.18, and p=0.81 respectively). There was a statistically significant difference of mean hs-Trop T values with or without in-hospital mortality (0.35 vs. 0.85ng/ml, respectively, p=0.008), suggesting that higher hs-Trop T level is associated with increased in hospital mortality.
The findings of this hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin study are similar to study done by Matsui et al. the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum level of hs-Trop T relative to H-FABP in the early hours of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 460 consecutive patients hospitalized to the cardiac emergency department for suspected ACS within 6h after the onset of chest symptom. It showed that increased hs-TnT (relative risk 14.5, P=0.009), but not H-FABP, was independently associated with cardiac events. Patients with increased hs-TnT had a higher risk of cardiac events within 12months compared with those without (14.1% vs. 0.5%, P<0.0001). In that study the sensitivity and specificity of hs-Trop T and H-FABP were 88% and 76% <3h of presentation respectively and 91% and 76% in patients presenting within 3 to 6h. Overall sensitivity for hs-Trop T and H-FABP was 90% and 76% respectively (Matsui and Ishii, 2011). Antman et al. studied 597 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and showed that the composite end point of the sum of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or recurrent ischemia through day 14 occurred in 33.6% of patients with a positive assay for hs-Trop T compared with only 22.5% of patients with a negative assay (p<0.01) Antman et al., 1998. This finding supports our study that in hospital mortality was higher in patients with higher hs-Trop T values.
The findings of our study are also supported by a study done by Schoos et al. who studied 601 consecutive unselected chest pain patients with 59 (9.8%) acute myocardial infarctions (MI) and showed that in a single sample strategy, admission hs c TnTs are equipotent and superior to copeptin and H-FABP. Hs-TnT has slightly better ‘ruling out’ and hs-TnI better ‘ruling in’ capacities in diagnosing MI. In Meiosis study numerically best diagnostic strategy was regardless of symptom onset, the combination of hscTnI and H-FABP (Mikkel, 2013).

Dekker et al. in a study of 486 ACS suspected patients presenting to the emergency department within 24h of symptom onset, showed that H-FABP testing improves diagnostic accuracy in addition to clinical findings and ECG. H-FABP however, has limited clinical diagnostic value in addition to cTnI measurements in daily practice (Dekker et al., 2011).

There are various studies which support the role of H-FABP in both diagnosis and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome. In a study done by McCann et al. in patients with ACS showed that sensitivity of H-FABP for acute MI was superior to cTnT for patients admitted within 4h of symptom onset. For patients who were admitted 4h or more following symptom onset there was no significant difference between the sensitivity of H-FABP and cTnT. The results of this trial supported the use of H-FABP, measured in combination with cTnT at the time of admission, to improve upon early detection of acute MI. This combined approach (either marker elevated) significantly improved sensitivity for acute MI of patients admitted within 12h of symptom onset (McCann et al., 2008).

In another study Kilcullen et al. evaluated the prognostic utility of H-FABP in a registry of 1448 patients with ACS from West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Heart type fatty acid-binding protein was powerfully and independently associated with the risk of death when measured within 12–24h of symptom onset after ACS. Moreover, H-FABP identified subjects at increased risk of death even when troponin levels were normal (Kilcullen et al., 2007).

## br General principles and practices Various coordinate systems have

General principles and practices

Various coordinate systems have been created and used for different applications. Generally speaking, the defined or selected coordinate system should be as simple and convenient as possible for the purpose of measurement using a given technology. While a cylindrical coordinate system is convenient to study grip pressure and grip force [39–46], a Cartesian coordinate system is generally the simplest and most convenient system for vibration measurement and analysis; hence, it has been adopted as the standard coordinate system [11]. This type of a system has three linear axes or coordinates in mutually orthogonal directions that share a common origin. Once two axes are defined, the third one is automatically determined. Then, the primary concern becomes how to appropriately define or select the origin position and two essential axes of the coordinate system.

If it is practical, a global coordinate system fixed on the earth should be used for the required measurements and evaluations. Such a global system can reduce the uncertainty of a coordinate system orientation by using a known fixed reference, and helps avoid the mathematical Blebbistatin of coordinates in the measured data. Such a choice has been used widely to measure human motions in biomechanical studies [18,20]. While it may be feasible to use a global coordinate system to measure low-frequency vibrations, this approach has not been practical and reliable for measurements of vibration in the entire frequency range of concern (5–1,500 Hz) for hand-transmitted vibration exposure. The global coordinate system is the best choice for the measurement of vibration using a three-dimensional laser vibrometer [6,35]. While this expensive technology is applicable for vibration measurements on a stationary target in a laboratory experiment, it is not suitable for workplace measurements, as the tool and hand–arm system are typically not stationary during tool operations and it is very difficult for the laser beams to track the moving target.

Accelerometer technology remains the most convenient, affordable, and sufficiently reliable approach for the measurement of hand-transmitted vibration exposures, both at workplaces and in laboratories. It is thus the primary technology recommended in the standards for the measurement and assessment of human vibration exposures [11,47]. Consequently, definitions of the hand–arm coordinate systems should primarily be based on the application of herbivores technology. Each accelerometer must be mounted at a certain location on a vibrating tool or a hand–arm system. This requires identifying a local coordinate system for the application of the accelerometer technology.

Fig. 2 shows two examples of tool operations at workplaces. The z axis of the local coordinate system at each of the four locations is plotted in the figure. These examples demonstrate that the local coordinate orientations vary with their locations and are generally not aligned with each other. Their relationships on the left hand may be different from those on the right hand. They also vary with the specific tools and some other factors such as time, individuals, and working condition. It would be extremely difficult if a single local coordinate system would be required to measure the vibrations distributed on the tools and hand–arm systems using the accelerometer technology. Multiple coordinate systems have to be considered for the measurements. This explains why the ISO standards define two types of coordinate systems. While the BC coordinate system is primarily defined for the measurement of the vibration input to the hand, the BD coordinate system is primarily defined for the measurement and analysis of biodynamic responses. Whenever necessary, the typical relationship between the BC and BD systems for each tool operation condition can be measured, and the experimental data measured in the BC system can be mathematically transformed into the BD system for analyzing biodynamic responses. A study has implemented this strategy [48].

## La ilustraci n figura de este tetzahuitl en el C

La ilustración (figura 2) de este tetzahuitl en el Códice Florentino muestra exactamente su descripción: cinco hombres admiran la pirámide de fuego; con el dedo índice de una mano la señalan, mientras que la otra mano la conservan abierta gamma secretase inhibitors la altura de la boca. Se observa con claridad que una de las cinco personas tiene la boca abierta. Esta acción corporal representa el alarido indicado por el verbo tenhuitequi, que consiste en tapar y destaparse la boca –como se ha apuntado varias veces. Desgraciadamente, en la imagen sólo aparecen hombres, lo cual no nos permite establecer el contraste genérico de la expresión del miedo que se aprecia en las fuentes escritas.

Así como el verbo tenhuitequi comunicaba una acción en la guerra al tiempo que una demostración de terror ante una señal de mal agüero, la acción que comportaba el verbo tlacahuaca también se manifestaba en ambos contextos, pues refería a los alaridos o gritos de guerra (Molina 2004, sección náhuatl-español: fol. 115v; Siméon 2002: 561) y a un gesto de temor durante los fenómenos naturales aciagos, como el de la pirámide de fuego y el eclipse de sol (, lib. VII, cap. I: 2).

El gesto que refiere a la acción tenhuitequi igualmente tenía por objetivo avisar a los que no sabían que estaba temblando. Cuando temblaba: “todo mundo da gritos, grita pegándose en los labios, para avisar [que hay temblor] a quienes no lo saben” (Sahagún 1969b: 74-75). También era utilizado para infundir miedo en el enemigo durante la guerra (Torquemada 1975, I, lib. II, cap. XC: 320). Es posible que al ponerlo en práctica en las situaciones de miedo se tratara de alejar de sí el peligro.

Además de la guerra y las situaciones de miedo, podemos identificar un tercer contexto de aparición del verbo que venimos tratando: el de la inmoralidad. En un texto náhuatl del siglo xvii se registra la conversación entre una madre y una anciana sobre el comportamiento inmoral de uno de los hijos de aquélla. La madre cuenta que es “poco inteligente y travieso, luego nada teme […]; como si fuera chichimeca va pegándose en los labios, grita corriendo. Y en ningún lugar se para, luego va lejos, huye…” [in achi cueciuhqui, inniman amo tla imacaci […], yuhquin ma chichimecatl motenhuitectiuh tzatzitiuh in motlaloa: auh acan moquetza, niman hueca yauh choloa…] (Garibay 1943: 99).

La puesta en práctica del verbo tenhuitequi fuera de los contextos señalados para ello, denotaba el estado de locura y de inmoralidad del ejecutor, pues violaba las convenciones sociales de las expresiones corporales. Otras acciones que acompañan a tetrad dicho gesto y que enfatizan su situación transgresora es gritar, no temer ni respetar, correr y huir sin parar, actitudes que precisamente definieron el comportamiento físico del joven malvado, tal como se observa en una exhortación de un padre a su hijo recuperada por fray Andrés de Olmos (García Quintana 1974: 154-157).

Las diferentes maneras corporales de expresar el miedo entre los nahuas mantuvieron concordancia con lo que se esperaba de cada uno de los géneros y los grupos de edades, y con la concepción que se tenía de éstos. Si bien el llanto era una actitud generalizada ante variadas situaciones emotivas, en los contextos de miedo la expresión corporal de los hombres los distanciaba de las mujeres y los niños, quienes seguían manteniendo el lloro como forma de manifestar el temor (Muñoz Camargo 1998: 187). Esto hacía que ambos grupos sociales conformaran una unidad.

Esto es ejemplar en el caso de las parteras y las ancianas que llevaban custodiado el cuerpo de la mocihuaquetzqui –mujer muerta de primer parto– para enterrarlo frente a las imágenes de las diosas cihuapipiltin. La particularidad de estas mujeres es que iban portando escudos y gritando como si fueran a la guerra, gesto que es descrito por los informantes nahuas de Sahagún a través de los verbos tlacahuaca y tempapahuia (Sahagún 1969b: 142). Estos verbos indicaban los gritos que daba la gente, con seguridad los hombres, durante el eclipse solar (ibidem: 144).

## Variables of demographic characteristics of

Variables of demographic characteristics of responders and non-responders were calculated using the Mann-Whitney test and Fisher exact test. Efficacy variables were assessed using the Friedman test, and individual comparisons were assessed with the Bonferroni-Dunn method. Statistical variables were applied and findings were considered statistically significant at a P value less than .05.

Results

No statistically significant difference was found for age, duration of ED, comorbidities, and dysfunction severity when comparing responders to LISWT (24 of 40) with non-responders to LISWT (16 of 40; Table 1).

In responders to LISWT, the increase in results obtained through the IIEF-EF score was statistically significant from the 3-month assessment after treatment, reaching a mean of 9.3 points and of 9.1 points by 12 months after treatment (Figure 2).

From 3 months after treatment to the end of follow-up monitoring, significant changes were encountered in the responder group for the EHS and SEP2 and SEP3, with a response rate of almost 80% of attempts (Figure 2).

Improvements in the IIEF-EF score were higher whenever ED was more severe, with changes of 13, 10.5, 6.8, and 4.5 points for patients with severe, moderate, mild to moderate, and mild ED, respectively (Table 2).

Discussion

Most randomized, double-blinded, sham-control trials have reported the efficacy of LISWT in patients with ED.

Vardi et al presented the first randomized, double-blinded, sham-control trial that nicergoline demonstrated that LISWT had a positive short-term clinical and physiologic effect on the erectile function of men who respond to oral PDE5i therapy. They found a significantly greater increase in the IIEF-EF score in the treated group than in the sham-treated group. In addition, physiologic penile hemodynamic significantly improved in the treated group but not in the sham group (maximal postischemic penile blood flow = 8.2 vs 0.1 mL/[min · dL], P < .0001) assessed using plethysmography.
However, Yee et al, using a similar treatment scheme to the one used in the study by Vardi et al and implementing the same shockwave therapy system (Omnispec ED1000; Medispec Ltd, Germantown, MD, USA), did not find significant statistical evidence in the IIEF score and EHS score in a group of 28 patients under LISWT treatment compared with a sham-treated group of 30 patients. Nevertheless, they found a significant difference in patients with severe ED according to the Sexual Health Inventory for Men and concluded that LISWT has clinical efficacy in this subgroup of patients.
More recently, Srini et al, in a randomized double-blinded trial with active treatment and sham therapy, reported a positive long-term efficacy in patients with vasculogenic ED treated with linear-focused shockwaves, just as Vardi et al had (Omnispec ED1000).
In a narrative review of all published studies, Gruenwald et al found that 60% to 75% of treated patients who responded to PDE5i therapy could eliminate their dependency on those drugs and achieve an erection and vaginal penetration and that 72% of non-responders to PDE5i before undergoing LISWT became responders and achieved vaginal penetration.
These investigators used a compact electrohydraulic system fitted with a targeted shockwave source (Omnispec ED1000). Unlike the system used for the present patients, Gruenwald et al had to stretch the penis and manually apply the transducer to it proximally, medially, and distally and then apply it to the perineum. With this operator-dependent method, the selected treatment protocol consisted of two sessions per week for a period of 3 weeks and was repeated after a treatment-free interval of 3 weeks.
Chung and Cartmill, in an open-label prospective study of 30 patients with ED, assessed the efficacy and safety of an electromagnetic shockwave unit of higher energy density (0.25 mJ/mm2) previously used in the treatment of tenosynovitis and tendinitis (Duolith SD1 Ultra; Storz Medical AG, Tägerwilen, Switzerland). Treatment duration consisted of two sessions per week for a period of 6 uninterrupted weeks. Sixty percent of patients showed an improved erectile response according to the IIEF-5 and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction index 6 weeks after treatment, and this effect remained for 4 months.

## Based on Refs this paper will further

Based on Refs. [5,7,11,39–50,60–72], this phosphodiesterase inhibitor paper will further investigate the maximum power output of a multistage irreversible Carnot heat engine system, in which the heat transfer between the reservoir and the working fluid obeys the generalized heat transfer law [38,50,59,73–78], and the irreversibility includes the heat resistance and internal dissipation.

System modeling and characteristic description

The model of a multistage continuous irreversible Carnot heat engine system with a finite high-temperature fluid reservoir to be considered is shown in Figure 1. The first fluid (i.e. the driving fluid) flows along the -axis, and the infinitesimal Carnot heat engines are located continuously between two separated boundary layers of the fluids. Each infinitesimal Carnot heat engine is the same. During the infinitesimal length, , the infinitesimal Carnot heat engine absorbs heat from the first fluid, and releases heat to the second fluid (i.e. environment). The cumulative power is delivered at the last stage. The thermal capacity of the high-temperature fluid is finite, and its temperature decreases along the flow direction due to the heat absorbed by the multistage heat engine. So, the fluid reservoir of the multistage continuous irreversible Carnot heat engine system is non-stationary. However, for each infinitesimal Carnot heat engine, its high-temperature heat reservoir is stationary. For the convenience of analysis, the fundamental characteristic of the single stage irreversible Carnot heat engine with stationary reservoirs will be firstly derived, and then that of the multistage continuous irreversible Carnot heat engine system with a non-stationary fluid heat reservoir will be further obtained.

HJB equation for the optimization problem

The problem now is to determine the maximum value of Eq. (20) subject to the constraint of Eq. (19). The control variable is , and the inequality always holds for the heat engine, so one obtains . This optimal control problem belongs to a variational problem whose control variable has the constraint of a closed set, and the Pontryagin’s minimum value principle or Bellman’s dynamic programming theory [5,7,11,80,81] may be applied. When the state vector dimension of the optimal control problem is small, the numerical optimization conducted by the dynamic programming theory is very efficient. Let the optimal performance objective of the problem be , and the admissible control set of the control variable is denoted as . The performance objective of the control problem can be expressed as follows: where is given by: The HJB equation of the optimization problem is given by: where is given by: Substituting Eqs. (23) and (25) into Eq. (24) yields: There is an analytical solution of Eq. (26) for the only case with the Newtonian heat transfer law, while for the other heat transfer laws, one has to use numerical methods. Consider that the continuous differential equation should be discretized for the numerical calculation performed on the computer, and then the discrete equations are given based on Eq. (26), as follows: The optimal control problem is to determine the maximum value of Eq. (27) subject to the constraints of discrete Eqs. (28) and (29). Since the state vector (i.e. fluid temperature ) dimension of the optimal control problem herein is one, the dynamic programming is adopted to solve the optimization problem. From Eqs. (27)–(29), the Bellman’s backward recurrence equation is given by: If further, Eqs. (26)–(30) become the optimization results for the maximum power output multistage endoreversible heat engine system with the generalized heat transfer law in Ref. [50]. Refs. [11,66,68] discussed convergence of the discrete recurrence equation of dynamic programming to the continuous HJB equation in detail. For the optimization problem considered herein, the term in Eq. (25) contains the time variable inexplicitly. So, Eq. (30) converges to Eq. (26). The numerical solving process of the dynamical programming consists of backward calculation and forward query. For the detailed calculation line of the dynamic programming, one can refer to Refs. [11,66,68].

## Based on Refs this paper will further

Based on Refs. [5,7,11,39–50,60–72], this phosphodiesterase inhibitor paper will further investigate the maximum power output of a multistage irreversible Carnot heat engine system, in which the heat transfer between the reservoir and the working fluid obeys the generalized heat transfer law [38,50,59,73–78], and the irreversibility includes the heat resistance and internal dissipation.

System modeling and characteristic description

The model of a multistage continuous irreversible Carnot heat engine system with a finite high-temperature fluid reservoir to be considered is shown in Figure 1. The first fluid (i.e. the driving fluid) flows along the -axis, and the infinitesimal Carnot heat engines are located continuously between two separated boundary layers of the fluids. Each infinitesimal Carnot heat engine is the same. During the infinitesimal length, , the infinitesimal Carnot heat engine absorbs heat from the first fluid, and releases heat to the second fluid (i.e. environment). The cumulative power is delivered at the last stage. The thermal capacity of the high-temperature fluid is finite, and its temperature decreases along the flow direction due to the heat absorbed by the multistage heat engine. So, the fluid reservoir of the multistage continuous irreversible Carnot heat engine system is non-stationary. However, for each infinitesimal Carnot heat engine, its high-temperature heat reservoir is stationary. For the convenience of analysis, the fundamental characteristic of the single stage irreversible Carnot heat engine with stationary reservoirs will be firstly derived, and then that of the multistage continuous irreversible Carnot heat engine system with a non-stationary fluid heat reservoir will be further obtained.

HJB equation for the optimization problem

The problem now is to determine the maximum value of Eq. (20) subject to the constraint of Eq. (19). The control variable is , and the inequality always holds for the heat engine, so one obtains . This optimal control problem belongs to a variational problem whose control variable has the constraint of a closed set, and the Pontryagin’s minimum value principle or Bellman’s dynamic programming theory [5,7,11,80,81] may be applied. When the state vector dimension of the optimal control problem is small, the numerical optimization conducted by the dynamic programming theory is very efficient. Let the optimal performance objective of the problem be , and the admissible control set of the control variable is denoted as . The performance objective of the control problem can be expressed as follows: where is given by: The HJB equation of the optimization problem is given by: where is given by: Substituting Eqs. (23) and (25) into Eq. (24) yields: There is an analytical solution of Eq. (26) for the only case with the Newtonian heat transfer law, while for the other heat transfer laws, one has to use numerical methods. Consider that the continuous differential equation should be discretized for the numerical calculation performed on the computer, and then the discrete equations are given based on Eq. (26), as follows: The optimal control problem is to determine the maximum value of Eq. (27) subject to the constraints of discrete Eqs. (28) and (29). Since the state vector (i.e. fluid temperature ) dimension of the optimal control problem herein is one, the dynamic programming is adopted to solve the optimization problem. From Eqs. (27)–(29), the Bellman’s backward recurrence equation is given by: If further, Eqs. (26)–(30) become the optimization results for the maximum power output multistage endoreversible heat engine system with the generalized heat transfer law in Ref. [50]. Refs. [11,66,68] discussed convergence of the discrete recurrence equation of dynamic programming to the continuous HJB equation in detail. For the optimization problem considered herein, the term in Eq. (25) contains the time variable inexplicitly. So, Eq. (30) converges to Eq. (26). The numerical solving process of the dynamical programming consists of backward calculation and forward query. For the detailed calculation line of the dynamic programming, one can refer to Refs. [11,66,68].

## PD325901 Supplier br Formulation A steady viscous

Formulation

A steady viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting and micro-polar fluid flowing past a non conducting wedge is considered. This flow can be considered as the flow past a triangular or wedge shaped wick inside the heat pipe or heat exchanger. The physical model and coordinate system of the problem are shown in Figure 1.

The authors use rectangular Cartesian coordinates , in which and are the distances measured along the wedge, normal to the surface of the wedge and along the leading edge of the wedge respectively. A strong magnetic filed is applied along the -axis and the fluid is considered electrically conducting. Thus, Hall and ion-slip currents affect the flow. This effect give rise to force in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, which induces a cross flow in that direction, i.e. -direction. For the steady, incompressible, magneto-hydrodynamic flow of micropolar fluid with generalized Ohm’s law, including Hall and ion-slip (see Sutton [24]) and under the assumption that the fluid is non-magnetic, and neglecting the thermoelectric effect the equations in vector form are:

Conservation of mass:

Conservation of translational momentum:

Conservation of angular momentum (micro-rotation):

Current density vector:

Maxwell’s equations:

Energy equation: is PD325901 Supplier loss function due to viscosity and Joule heating.

To simplify the problem the authors assume that there is no variation of flow and heat transfer quantities in the -direction as discussed by Rosenhead [25]. The equation of conservation of electric charge gives constant. Since the wedge is non-conducting, , everywhere in the flow. Also, and everywhere in the fluid. The authors assumed that the induced magnetic field can be neglected in comparison to the applied magnetic field, but the viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects in the fluid are taken into account.

Conservation of mass:

Conservation of translational momentum:

Conservation of angular momentum (micro-rotation):

Conservation of energy: where, and are the velocity components along directions

The boundary conditions for the flow are:

Following [12], the authors assume that the free stream velocity is , where , and corresponds to for angle of the wedge, and a is a positive constant. As discussed by [23], the authors assume that , where with for the boundary layer flow over a stationary flat plate and for the flow near the stagnation point on an infinite wall. In the boundary conditions “” is a constant such that . In the case when is called strong concentration, which indicates near the wedge, this represents concentrated particle flow where the micro-elements close to the wedge surface are unable to rotate (see Jena et al., 1981). In the case when , this indicates the vanishing of the anti-symmetric part of the stress tensor and denotes weak concentration, whereas is used for the modeling of turbulent boundary layer flow. Here the authors took the case of . It is known that , where is the dimensionless viscosity ratio and is called a material parameter.

The authors introduce the following similarity variables:

Eqs. (7)–(10) along with boundary conditions (1)–(4) reduce to: where, (′) represents the derivative with respect to , is steam function. i.e. and , , (Eckert number) and (Prandtl number).

Boundary conditions in non dimensional form are:

The quantities of physical interest are local skin friction coefficients ( and ), local Nusselt number () and wall couple stress (), which are defined as:

, and respectively, where , , and .

Therefore , and respectively.

Method of solution

The non-linear ordinary differential equations (14)–(17) subjected to boundary conditions (18) and (19) have been solved using the Runge–Kutta Fehlberg method along with the shooting method. This method is based on the discretization of the problem domain and the calculation of unknown boundary conditions.

## br Material and methods br

Material and methods

Results

Discussions

In the present study, we investigated whether there is diversity between two different parts of A. rugosa. However, there was hardly similarity between oils from the essential oil of flower and leaf. In this study, oxygenated terpenes were the main compounds in the EOF; p-Menthan-3-one was the main compound in the essential oil of leaf. The oils have high contents of p-Menthan-3-one. Meanwhile, P-Menthan-3-one and estragole were detected as common main compounds (peak area >10%) of two essential oils.

Compared with Korean Mint (A. rugosa), there were significant differences for each other. As reported, methyl chavicol was the predominant component in the both leaf (84.25%) and flower (57.94%) of Korean Mint (A. rugosa) (Lim et al., 2013). Previous investigations were done on the chemical constituents of essential oil of A. rugosa from northeast China (Yue, 1998), Hubei (Yang et al., 2000) and Hunan (Xiong et al., 2009) of China, the Central Botanical Garden of the NAS of Belarus (Skakovskii et al., 2010). So far, constituents of essential oils isolated from the flower and leaf of A. rugosa cultivated in Xinjiang, have not been reported.

S. aureus and E. coli exist in upper respiratory, food, and large intestine, respectively. Blastomyces albicans exists in mucous membrane of oral cavity, upper respiratory, intestinal tract, vagina, etc. Herbal medicines may be an alternative because they present secondary metabolites that are active against a wide range of microorganisms. Based on the research, the essential oils derived from herbal plants, could be developed as an antimicrobial agent in medical field and food industry, and its mode of action is required for future drug development.

We initiated this study to characterize composition of the essential oils from different parts of A. rugosa that was artificial cultured and grown in Xinjiang, and offer choice for clinical treatments and application, which have not been the subject of previous studies. The essential oils from A. rugosa possess potential antimicrobial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic activities. So our results offer reliable casein kinase for resource optimization, clinical choice and standard of quality control.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by a grant from China, the Natural Science Foundation of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (2013211A063).

Introduction

At present, more than 1.1 billion people worldwide are exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Every year an estimate of 5 million people die from tobacco-related diseases (Ezzati and Lopez, 2003). CS is also well known to be reproductively toxic to males. CS and its harmful components have been documented to be associated with sperm damage such as DNA strand break (Fraga et al., 1996; La Maestra et al., 2015; Marchetti et al., 2011), DNA adducts (Potts et al., 1999), chromosomal abnormality (Yauk et al., 2007) and plasma membrane integrity (Ramlau-Hansen et al., 2007). Billig et al. (1996) think that apoptosis is supposed to be an important physiologic mechanism that limits the number of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium of testes.

Apoptosis is an active process by which cells are programed to die under a wide range of physiologic and developmental stimuli. Although apoptosis is an important physiologic mechanism that helps to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, a range of pathologic processes may stimulate it. An increase in apoptosis has been shown to occur in testis following experimental cryptorchidism (Shikone et al., 1994), hypophysectomy (Tapanainen et al., 1993) and exposure to toxic agents such as cocaine (Li et al., 1999) and chemotherapeutic agent such as mitomycin-C (Nakagawa et al., 1997).

In the area of inhalation toxicology, Haber’s rule (Gaylor, 2000) is commonly used to estimate the relationship between the exposure dosimetry and the biological effect based on the theory that an equivalent integrated dose of concentration (C)×time (t) induces a comparable toxic effect (k). However, few studies explored the interactions of exposure concentration and duration on the apoptosis of testis. Therefore, in this study, some crucial parameters were studied to determine the influence of these parameters on the apoptosis of testis when a constant c×t dose of cigarette smoke was exposed, and to determine the relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and the degree of apoptosis in testicular cells.