Yassin tested eight reinforced concrete wide beams to investigate

Yassin [12] tested eight reinforced concrete wide beams to investigate the behavior and strength of these beams when provided with tension reinforcement using headed bars with lap splice joints in the mid-span of the beams. The study focused on studying the effect of lap splices length, spacing of the confining vertical stirrups in the splice zone, and the cut-off ratio of the spliced bars on the strength and ductility of the tested beams. From the results of these experiments, it was concluded that the use of the lap splice length as specified by ACI 318-08, but without the use of transverse reinforcement in the splice zone, and with 100% cut-off resulted in a brittle failure. Also, it was reported that when vertical stirrups were provided in the lap zone to confine the lap joint, the strength of beams was maintained and there was a significant gain in ductility and strain reverse transcriptase of these beams.
Li et al. [13] recently reported the results of testing precast concrete panels connection using lap splice of headed bars. The specimens were subjected to bending and a combination of bending and shear loading. The length of lap joint and spacing between headed bars were the main studied parameters and no confinement was used. A strut and tie model was proposed and validated for the lap splice of headed bars and the ultimate capacity of the joint could be reasonably estimated.

Research significance and objectives

Experimental study

Test results and discussion
For each slab, ultimate loads, deflection at failure and the area under the load–deflection curve for each tested slab (strain energy), are presented in Table 3. Figs. 4–10 show cracks at failure of some of the tested slabs. It should be noted that the load values shown on cracks in these figures are given in tons.

Summary and conclusions
In this paper, the results of testing nine concrete one-way slabs with lap splice using headed bars with 100% cut-off ratio were presented. The main studied variables were the splice length, using confinement details in the lap zone, debonding of bars in the lap splice zone, and applying repeated gradually increasing cyclic loading. From the results of the tested slabs, the following conclusions can be drawn:

Bearing capacity improvement and settlement control of sand subgrade with horizontal reinforcements under footings have been widely used. These reinforcement techniques were used to prevent foundation failure under different circumstances. In the previous studies, soil reinforcements are used before construction to improve the supporting soil. Recently a variety of investigators studied the concept of using soil reinforcement techniques in the vertical form for strengthening existing footings to safeguard critically stable buildings. The ability of strengthening of footing subgrade by different reinforced elements in the vertical form was investigated [1–5]. Moreover, the possibility of using different vertical reinforcement in the form of geogrid and bamboo sticks was reported and studied [6]. The strengthening of the loaded footing soil systems by extensible steel thin sheets to provide lateral confinement around the existed footings was also presented as a vertical reinforcement solution [7].
Finally, the concept of strengthening the mechanical characteristics of subgrade layer by inclusions of vertical reinforcing elements has been successfully applied in several techniques for strengthening and ground improvement. Grouting techniques in the vertical form are used worldwide and considered as a rigid reinforcing element. Several research workers are still working on this concept and the grouting is used in strengthening of fine grained soil masses that are insufficiently confined [8]. Grouting in cohesive soils to mitigate settlements under existing structures was analyzed. Also, mitigation of soil settlement under existing structures by in-situ pseudo-static densification has been used for more than forty years in the U.S.A. [9]. The use of the compensation grouting to control the ground loss due to tunneling which caused subsidence trough was adopted [10]. The concept of lense grouting, the equipment and the materials employed was distinctly explained, and its various applications in geotechnical problems are introduced [11,12]. The technique of improvement of the soil by vertical grouting columns was discussed [13]. A research describing the development of special geotechnical measures to protect buildings from damages resulting from total and differential settlements was also investigated [14]. Investigation of the shear parameters of bentonite cement grouts in sandy soil and developed shear strength was studied [15,16].

On applying small disturbances to the system the equation of

On applying small disturbances to the system, the equation of interface can be written as
The unit outward normal to the interface, is given byand the unit outward normal of the first order, is given by
Our analysis is based on the potential flow theory, therefore; velocity can be expressed as the gradient of the potential function, i.e.
For incompressible fluids, the density is constant; the continuity equation takes the form asCombining Eqs. (4) and (5), we havewhere .
The fluids are subjected to normal electric field E1 and E2, respectively acting in the positive y-direction.
It is assumed that the quasi-static approximation is valid for the problem, hence the electric field can be derived from electric scalar potential function ψ(x,y,t) such that
Gauss’s law requires that the electric potentials also satisfy Laplace’s equation, i.e.The boundary conditions at the rigid surfaces y=−h1 and y=h2 are given byand
The fluids are flowing with the uniform velocities U1 and U2, respectively along x-axis. Therefore, in initial state, the potential function can be written as
The tangential component of the electric field must be continuous across the interface, i.e.where is the tangential component of the electric field and [x] represents the difference in a quantity across the interface, it is defined as [x]=x(2)−x(1).
There is a discontinuity in the normal current across the interface; charge accumulation within a material A 779 is balanced by conduction from bulk fluid on either side of the surface. The boundary condition, corresponding to normal component of the electric displacement, at the interface is given bywhere is the normal component of the electric field.
In this analysis, it is assumed that phase-change takes place locally in such a way that the net phase-change rate at the interface is equal to zero. Therefore, the interfacial condition, which expresses the conservation of mass across the interface,
The interfacial condition for energy transfer is expressed aswhere L is the latent heat released during phase transformation and S(η) denotes the net heat flux from the interface. Here, it has assumed that the amount of latent heat released depends mainly on the instantaneous position of the interface.
In the equilibrium state, the heat fluxes in positive y-direction in the fluid phases 1 and 2 are K1(T1−T0)/h1 and K2(T0−T2)/h2, respectively where K1 and K2 denote the heat conductivities of the two fluids. The net heat flux S(η) is expressed as
On expanding S(η) about y=0, i.e. at η=0,Since S(0)=0,from Eq. (19) we getHence in the equilibrium state, heat fluxes across the interfaces are equal.
The interfacial condition for conservation of momentum is given by;where p represents the pressure and σ denotes the surface tension. Surface tension has been assumed to be a constant, neglecting its dependence on temperature. Pressure can be obtained using Bernoulli’s equation.

Viscous correction for the viscous potential flow
Let = be the unit outward normal at the interface for the inner fluid and =− is the unit outward normal for the outer fluid; and = be the unit tangent vector. We use the superscripts ‘v’ for viscous and ‘i’ for irrotational, respectively. The normal and shear parts of the viscous stress are represented by and , respectively.
The mechanical energy equations for outside and inside fluids are respectivelywhere (j=1,2) is the symmetric part of the rate of strain tensor for inside and outside fluids, respectively.
As the normal velocities at the interface are continuous, ⋅=⋅=, the sum of Eqs. (23) and (24) can be written as
On introducing the two viscous pressure correction terms and for the inner and outer sides of the flow region, we can resolve the discontinuity of the shear stress and tangential velocity at the interface, soHence, Eq. (25) becomes
On comparing Eqs. (25) and (26), we get

If China reaches its CO emission peak around it

If China reaches its CO2 emission peak around 2030, it will be at an earlier development stage than the stage the developed countries were at when they reached their CO2 emission peaks; thus, China needs to make more effort than the developed countries. When the developed countries reached their CO2 emission peaks, vorapaxar consumption was mostly stabilized. The U.S. and Japan reached their energy consumption peaks and CO2 emission peaks at the same time. The potential GDP growth rate of China in 2030 should be higher than 4%. Even if the elasticity of energy consumption drops to 0.3, the energy consumption growth rate should be approximately 1.2%. At that time the total energy demand will be 6000 Mtce, and the newly increased demand for energy will be more than 70 Mtce annually. The newly increased energy demand will have to be met by non-fossil energy supplies for CO2 emissions to peak. That requires a much faster development pace and larger scale of non-fossil energy in China compared with developed countries. China will have to install 20 GW of wind power and 20 GW of solar power electricity-generating capacity and nearly 10 GW of nuclear electricity-generating capacity each year. That means one wind generating set installed each hour and eight to ten nuclear power units installed each year. Development on such a large scale is unprecedented in the world (He, 2013).
For China\’s non-fossil energy share to reach the 20% target in 2030, the non-fossil energy supply must reach 1200 Mtce annually. China\’s non-fossil energy supply was 280 Mtce in 2010. The non-fossil energy supply will need to more than quadruple in the coming 20 years, and that means around 1 TW of new non-fossil energy power installations (NBSC, 2013), which is about the same as the total installed capacity of the U.S. now (Table 2).
China faces bigger challenges than the developed countries in promoting a low-carbon transformation of its energy structure. For developed countries that are at the post-industrialization development stage, the energy demand tends to stabilize; thus, developing renewable energy could effectively substitute for and reduce the consumption of fossil energies such as coal and reduce CO2 emissions. China is, however, still at its industrialization and urbanization stage where the energy demand keeps increasing. The development of new and renewable energy must first satisfy the newly increased energy consumption demand and then serve as a substitution. The amount of investments, number of new installations, and growth rates of renewable energy in China have led the world in recent years. China\’s non-fossil energy supply more than doubled from 2005 to 2013, with an average annual growth rate of approximately 10%, which is much higher than the total energy consumption growth rate of 6.0% over the same time. The share of non-fossil energy in primary energy has increased from 6.8% to 9.8%. The scale of investments and the newly installed capacity of China\’s renewable energy power have exceeded those of coal power in China. In 2013, non-fossil energy makes up 60% of the new installation and 75% of the new electricity power generation investments. The above figures are continuously increasing. However, as renewable energy was not a large part of the energy mix in the first place, the rapid increase cannot yet satisfy the increase in total energy demand. Coal consumption increased 48% from 2005 to 2013 (NBSC, 2013; CESS, 2014). Therefore, China still faces severe challenges in restructuring its energy structure and controlling its coal consumption.
In June 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed the Clean Power Plan, seeking to cut CO2 emissions from the power sector by 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. By the end of 2011, CO2 emissions from the power sector had been reduced by 10.7%; thus, CO2 emissions from the power sector need to be cut by 21.6% during 2011–2030. In 2011, coal-fired power generation in the U.S. was 1875 TW h, 43.1% of its total power generation. The power demand of the U.S. in the future will be stable. Natural gas and non-fossil energy installations will replace coal power units so that the U.S. can achieve its 2030 emission reduction target. Both natural gas and non-fossil energy installations will need to increase by 50–100 GW. The amount of power from coal will fall by 150 GW. The coal power share will fall to 28%. In China, new non-fossil energy (hydro, wind, solar, nuclear, etc.) installations during 2011–2030 will reach 1 TW, i.e., 5–10 times that in the U.S. The speed and scale of the development of new and renewable energy in China will be much larger than that in the U.S. The CO2 emissions per unit of kilowatt-hour will decline by 20% in the U.S. and by 35% in China. The energy substitution in China will be more rapid than that in the U.S. China\’s total power demand in 2030 will, however, be twice that in 2011. The increase in the rate of total demand will be larger than that for energy substitution. Thus, CO2 emissions from the power sector will increase by approximately 30% in China, while the CO2 emissions from the power sector will decrease by 30% in 2030 due to the stabilization of the power demand in the U.S. (CESS, 2014). Therefore, China has to actively promote the energy revolution, develop as much new and renewable energy as possible to satisfy the increased energy demand, control the increase of fossil energy supplies, and avoid the technological lock-in of the fossil energy supply to achieve a great-leap-forward development of new energy technologies at the present stage with an increasing total energy consumption.

El resultado de este an lisis se

El resultado de este análisis se muestra en la tabla 1. El factor 1 correspondió order UM 171 la meta de maestría, el 2 a la de aproximación al rendimiento y el 3 a la de evitación del rendimiento. Los valores de alpha fueron de .89, .88 y .85 para cada meta respectivamente.

Estudio 2
En estudios con deportistas, Morris y Kavussanu (2008) no encontraron diferencias por género en la meta de evitación del rendimiento; las diferencias en la meta de maestría no han sido consistentes; en la meta de aproximación al rendimiento (o rendimiento) los hombres han superado a las mujeres (e.g., Balaguer et al., 1996; Hanrahan, & Cerin, 2009; Morris, & Kavussanu, 2008). Esta diferencia fue la que se esperó encontrar.

Discusión general y conclusiones
La última versión del cuestionario en el Estudio 1, no incluyó ningún reactivo referido a “esforzarse para superar a los otros” entre los de la meta de aproximación al rendimiento, ni a “esforzarse para evitar mostrar falta de habilidad” entre los de la meta de evitación del rendimiento. Como se señaló, incluir estos elementos se prestaba a polémica. En el Estudio 2 se eliminó el último reactivo de la meta de maestría relacionado con “hacer el mejor esfuerzo”. Sin embargo, las tres ideas centrales que se mantuvieron en el contenido de los reactivos de la meta de maestría, las tres que se conservaron en los reactivos de la meta de aproximación al rendimiento y las tres que permanecieron en los reactivos de la meta de evitación del rendimiento, corresponden a características teóricas relevantes de estas metas. Ninguno de los cuestionarios bidimensionales revisados incluyó las seis primeras características y ninguno de los tridimensionales incluyó las nueve. En cuanto a los aspectos referidos en la redacción de los reactivos, los cuatro incluidos en este cuestionario se presentaron en porcentajes altos de los reactivos de los cuestionarios revisados, pero en ninguno se presentaron todos. Cabe señalar que en el TEOSQ y en el POSQ todos los reactivos están redactados en términos de “elemento para juzgar éxito” y en el AGQ-S todos lo están en términos de “resultado que es importante alcanzar o evitar”. En síntesis, el cuestionario desarrollado incluyó más características relevantes de las metas que cualquiera de los revisados.
En los dos estudios los valores de alpha en las tres subescalas del cuestionario fueron superiores a .80, order UM 171 lo que indica una consistencia interna adecuada (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994) y son comparables a Saltatory replication los valores promedio reportados por Hulleman et al. (2010), que analizaron más de 30 instrumentos diferentes. En la versión final del cuestionario en el primer estudio, la solución del análisis factorial exploratorio coincidió con su estructura conceptual y en el análisis factorial confirmatorio del segundo estudio hubo un ajuste aceptable del modelo a los datos, lo que indica validez factorial.
En el análisis factorial confirmatorio hubo correlaciones positivas de la meta de aproximación al rendimiento con las de maestría y de evitación del rendimiento, que es lo que supone la conceptua-ción de Elliot (1999). Los hombres superaron a las mujeres en meta de aproximación al rendimiento y no hubo diferencia en meta de evitación del rendimiento, lo que coincide con los resultados de otros estudios (Balaguer et al., 1996; Hanrahan, & Cerin, 2009; Morris, & Kavussanu, 2008). Estos resultados apoyan la validez de constructo.

Hombres y mujeres difieren en diversas habilidades cognitivas y de aprendizaje (Andreano & Cahill, 2009) siendo un caso concreto el del aprendizaje espacial (para una revisión ver Coluccia & Louse, 2004). El aprendizaje espacial permite a los organismos aprender y utilizar rutas para localizar metas en forma eficiente (Hampson, 1995) y así resolver diversos problemas adaptativos (e.g. localización de alimento, Shettleworth, 2010). Las diferencias entre sexos en este tipo de aprendizaje pueden expresarse en variables cuantitativas como la latencia, número de errores y distancia recorrida para localizar una meta, las cuales se han demostrado ser sistemáticamente menores en hombres respecto a mujeres (e.g. Astur, Ortiz & Sutherland, 1998; Astur, Tropp, Sava, Constable & Markus, 2004; Cánovas, Espínola, Iribarne & Cimadevilla, 2008; Ross, Skelton & Mueller, 2006; para resultados similares con ratas ver: Saucier, Shultz, Keller Cook & Binsted, 2008), aunque también en las estrategias de búsqueda empleadas. Para esto último, existe evidencia de que los hombres generalmente se apoyan en información de tipo euclidiana (i.e. geometría, métrica del entorno y puntos cardinales), mientras que las mujeres se apoyan en marcadores individuales (e.g. Sandstrom, Kauffman & Huettel, 1998; Saucier, et al., 2002). También se ha demostrado la búsqueda de una meta que abarca puntos más distantes respecto al sitio de origen en hombres pero no en mujeres (i.e. estrategia global vs. local; Brandner, 2007; Pacheco-Cobos, Rosetti, Cuatianquiz & Hudson, 2010).

br Materials and methods Descriptions

Materials and methods
Descriptions and diagnoses of the genus and the species based on the Japanese specimens (Holotype) and Korean specimens are provided. All measurements in this paper are given in millimeters (mm). Terminology mainly follows Weirauch (2008) and Cornelis (2013). The newly recorded region of the species is indicated by an asterisk (*). Depository of the examined specimens is the Insect Collections in Laboratory of Systematic Entomology, Department of Applied Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University (CNU), Daejeon, Korea and the Kyushu University, Entomological Collection (KUEC), Fukuoka, Japan.

Taxonomic accounts

This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR201501203) and supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF–2014R1A1A1005338).

Metopiinae Förster, 1869 is a moderately large ichneumonid group comprising more than 830 described species worldwide. According to Baltazar (1964), the group consists of koinobiont endoparasitoids in pyraloids and tortricoids of lepidopterous larvae, which emerge from the pupae of their hosts. The genus TriecesTownes, 1946 comprises 69 species (Tolkanitz 2010; Yu et al 2012; Zhang et al 2016), including the newly described species, Trieces etuokensis Sheng, 2016, from China by Zhang et al (2016). Also, the ABT-737 PeriopeHaliday, 1838 and StethoncusTownes & Townes, 1959 comprise only 5 species worldwide (Yu et al 2012). The genera Periope, Stethoncus, and Trieces have not been studied yet in South Korea. Three genera of South Korean Metopiinae are discussed here: Periope with one species, Stethoncus with one species, and Trieces with three species (one of them new to science). In this study, we report a new species and four newly recorded species from South Korea.

Materials and methods
Materials used in this study were collected by sweeping and Malaise trapping, after which Founder effect were deposited in the animal systematic laboratory of Yeungnam University (YNU, Gyeongsan, South Korea). Morphological terminology follows mostly that of Gauld et al (2002). Specimens were examined using an AxioCam MRc5 camera attached to a stereomicroscope (Zeiss SteREO Discovery. V20; Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany), processed using AxioVision SE64 software (Carl Zeiss), and optimized using a Delta imaging system (i-solution; IMT i-Solution Inc., Vancouver, Canada). Distributional data mainly follow that of Yu et al (2012). Species description and diagnoses are based on South Korean specimens.

Systematic accounts
Family Ichneumonidae
Subfamily Metopiinae

PeriopeHaliday, 1838: 112–121. Type species: Periope auscultator Haliday.
MonoplectronHolmgren, 1856: 1–104. Type species: Monoplectron zygaenator Holmgren.
OligoplectronFörster, 1869: 135–221. Type species: Periope auscultator Haliday. New name for primary homonym.
MonoplectrochusHeinrich, 1949: 101–127. Type species: Monoplectrochus hoerhammeri Heinrich
Monoplectrochus hoerhammeriHeinrich, 1949: 101–127. Type: male; Type depository: AEI.
Diagnosis. Color. Black. Labrum, palpi, projection of upper face, fore and mid legs except basal coxae, spots on dorsal femora of fore and mid legs, hind trochanter and tibia except apically, hind tarsi and tegula yellow (Figures 1A and 1B). Antenna except scape and first flagellomere brown.
Face rugosely punctate. Malar space granulate, shorter than basal width of mandible. Projection of upper face recurved. Vertex densely punctate. Antenna with at least 21 flagellomeres. Pronotum polished, with hairs. Scutellum convex. Epicnemial carina incomplete; mesopleuron densely punctate; speculum shiny (Figure 1C). Metapleuron slightly punctate. Propodeum with parallel median longitudinal carinae (Figure 1D). Fore wing with stalked areolet (Figure 1E). Hind wing with nine distal hamuli. Tergites coarsely punctate; first tergite with lateral carinae at anterior half of first tergite in lateral view.

mCAP br Materials and methods br

Materials and methods

Among the eight participants who completed the treatment and assessments, all reported some improvement in their major FMS symptoms. Table 1 presents the results of the FMS tender point pressure sensitivity, before and after acupuncture treatment. After 8 weeks, the means at the left and right occipital points were enhanced by 84% and 98%, respectively, (from 3.26 to 6.3 kgf and 2.94 to 5.76 kgf). The means at the left and right trapezius were enhanced by 70% and 74%, respectively, (from 4.18 to 5.8 kgf and 4.14 to 6.16 kgf), and the means at the left and right rhomboid were enhanced by 68% and 83%, respectively, (from 4.66 to 6.38 kgf and 4.2 to 7 kgf). The means at the left and right upper chest were enhanced by 61% and 71%, respectively, (from 2.78 to 3.4 kgf and 2.34 to 3.36 kgf), and the means at the left and right epicondyle were enhanced by 72% and 83%, respectively, (from 3.4 to 4.9 kgf and 2.98 to 4.94 kgf).
In addition, patients reported significant improvement in pain symptoms, and the mean FIQ score decreased from 66 to 31.8, a 52% reduction. The mean HAQ score decreased from 24.67 to 18.67, which was a 24% reduction, but was not statistically significant. The mean BDI depression score decreased from 21.33 to 9.5, a 55% reduction, and the mean BAI anxiety score decreased from 36 to 8, a 78% mCAP (Fig. 2). We also observed significant decreases in other symptoms, including gastrointestinal complaints and fatigue.

The etiopathogenicity of FMS remains unknown, although current hypotheses center on anomalous peripheral nociception caused by windup, central sensitization, high levels of substance P (SP) and neurotrophins, and alterations to the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis [8,28]. The levels of anxiety and depression among patients with musculoskeletal pain are known to be related to FMS [29], and the prevalence of patients with FMS and severe depression varies from 20% to 80% [30]. The present study demonstrated a statistically significant difference before treatment and after 8 weeks of acupuncture at tender points. The results demonstrated, not only a reduction in pain threshold sensitivity, but also an improvement in the state of anxiety and depression and in quality of life, which were identified through the BDI, BAI and FIQ, but not the HAQ. These results suggest that acupuncture is capable of providing improvement that is additional to the improvement provided by standard medication in the treatment of FMS.
The immediate environment of active trigger points is characterized by significantly increased levels of SP, gene-related peptide (CGRP), bradykinin, serotonin, norepinephrine, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β, compared to latent trigger points and normal muscle tissue. These chemicals sensitize and activate both muscle nociceptors and glial cells [31,32].
The inactivation of trigger points with acupuncture, or with manual pressure techniques, may prevent the development of active trigger points and reduce or remove their nociceptive input, normalize the synaptic efficacy, and reduce peripheral and central sensitization. After eliciting a local twitch response with a needle, SP and CGRP have been shown to significantly decrease at active trigger points, which corresponds with the clinical observation of an immediate decrease in pain and local tenderness after the inactivation of a trigger point with acupuncture needling [31,32].
Another type of acupuncture that is a relatively new method in the arsenal of pain medicine, is dry needling, which has been shown to be an effective and safe method for treating trigger points when provided by adequately trained physicians or physical therapists [32,33]. The basic principle of this technique is that the dry needling of muscular trigger points causes relaxation by disrupting the motor endplate [34]; tiny injuries created by needle insertion cause a local healing response in the dysfunctional, painful tissue, which restores normal function through the natural healing process, and stimulates neural pathways that block pain by disrupting pain signals sent to the central nervous system [31–34].

Many molecules play important roles in the

Many molecules play important roles in the events of implantation such as adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and invasive proteinases [15]. Both interleukin 11 (IL-11) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) are two of few cytokines known to be absolutely required for wst-1 implantation, and both are obligatory for implantation in mice[7].
In agreement with our results, Gazvani et al. [15] reported that there was no significant difference in IL-11 mRNA expression pattern in the peritoneal fluid and the endometrium of fertile and infertile women.
Additional confirmation to our results was added by Mikolajczyk et al. [12] who showed no statistically significant differences in uterine flushing in infertile women (with and without endometriosis) with regard to IL-11 and LIF levels when compared to fertile controls. Their results were also confirmed by the results of RT-PCR, where there were no differences between studied groups.
However, the present results disagree with those reported by Lédée-Bataille et al. [16] and Dimitriadis et al. [6,17] who concluded that LIF, IL-11, and IL-11Rα mRNA and protein are down-regulated in the endometrium of women with unexplained/idiopathic infertility or infertility and endometriosis compared with that of fertile controls. Also, reduced IL-11 and LIF secretion by endometrial epithelial cells may be responsible for the reduced implantation/pregnancy rates in excessive ovarian responders during IVF treatment [18,19].
Female mice with a null mutation of the IL-11 are infertile due to a defective post-implantation response to the implanting blastocyst, whereas female mice with no functional LIF gene wst-1 are infertile due to an inability of normal embryos to implant [7,20].
Mutation of LIF gene results in reproductive failure in LIF −/− mice due to an inability to implant their blastocysts. This condition is reversed by infusion of LIF or by transfer of embryos to pseudo-pregnant recipient of wild-type mice [21]. Kralickova et al. [22] investigated the prevalence of the LIF gene mutations in the population of infertile women that consisted of nulligravid and secondary infertile patients. They revealed that the frequency of functionally relevant mutations of the LIF gene in infertile women is significantly enhanced in comparison with fertile controls.
Certain studies suggested that LIF gene mutations contribute to embryo implantation failure and thus to infertility and decreased pregnancy rates in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) [22,23]. These results coincided with our suggestion that the LIF gene mutations affect fertility.


Conflict of interest
The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


Both Mn–Zn and Ni–Zn ferrites have a great importance from the application point of view, where they are used in many ferrite devices such as inductor cores, converters, magnetic heads, and electromagnetic wave absorbers. Although Mn–Zn ferrites have distinctive magnetic properties as high initial permeability and magnetization, they have low electrical resistivity and high power losses. So, they are not suitable for magnetic applications especially at high frequencies. On the other hand, Ni–Zn ferrites are characterized by their high resistivity, low dielectric loss and high Curie temperature, but they have relatively low initial permeability at high frequencies. Combinations between these two ferrites were carried out by many studies trying to obtain favorable magnetic properties with low losses especially at high frequencies in bulk and powder forms [1–10]. In a previous work, the magnetic and electrical properties of such a combination were investigated [11,12]. The sample with the chemical formula Mn0.5Ni0.1Zn0.4Fe2O4 was found to possess the optimum properties for promising applications. Moreover, it was noticed clearly that the properties of Mn–Ni–Zn ferrites are predominantly governed by the type of substituted ions [2,12]. Accordingly, this work deals with the improvement of the magnetic properties of this last optimum sample when Nd3+ ions substitute only Fe3+ ions. This may present a candidate for magnetic applications in high frequency field.

Since purified glycerol is a high value chemical the

Since purified glycerol is a high-value chemical, the surplus of CG presents opportunities for new applications. Further, most of the smaller scale biodiesel producers require alternative solutions to the CG refining which is economically counterproductive (Ashby et al., 2011). Therefore, development of sustainable processes for utilizing this by-product is desirable in order to promote the biodiesel industrialization in a large scale (Yang et al., 2012). One such possibility is the CG utilization as a carbon source for the fermentative production of value-added products such as biopolymers generating a production set dissociated from petrochemical compounds. In this study, a new PHA-producing bacterial strain utilizing CG was isolated from Atlantic forest pteryxin Supplier and it was affiliated to Pandoraea genus, a recent taxon whose new species have been described (Coenye et al., 2000; Sahin et al., 2011). Since to our knowledge there are no reports about PHA accumulation from industrial by-products by this established taxon, here it is presented the first results on PHA production from CG by a representative of the Pandoraea genus.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Pandoraea is a recently established bacterial genus and new species have been described. Therefore, it is relevant to report the metabolic features and possible production of added-value metabolites of industrial interest or medical applications besides the characterization of new described species from this genus. In this study, Pandoraea sp. MA03 showed a good potential to produce P3HB and P(3HB-co-3HV) from CG as the sole carbon source and CG plus PA, respectively. The utilization of CG for the production of PHAs is an interesting alternative to support the biodiesel production from fats and oils. Further, the implementation of biofuels plants along the biodegradable plastics could be a green outlet for petrochemical plastics and fuels. Pandoraea sp. MA03 is a new PHA-producing strain adapted to convert CG to these microbial polyesters with high polymer accumulation rates which leads to future prospects concerning the optimization of cultivation parameters and the increase of cellular productivity.

The authors thank São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for financial support.

Desalination of sea or ocean water is a widespread technology used in many countries around the world. The desalination process is one of mankind’s earliest designs to separate fresh water from a salt-water solution (Einav et al., 2002). Desalination involves several processes to remove the excess salt and other minerals from the water to obtain potable water for human usage.
Essentially, a desalination plant is a system to separate saline water into two streams: one with a low concentration of dissolved salts and inorganic materials and the other containing the remaining dissolved salts (brine). The amount of flow discharged to waste as a brine discharge varies from 20 to 70 percent of the feed flow, depending on the technology used in the plant. Brine discharge is the fluid waste from a desalination plant, which contains a high percentage of salt and dissolved minerals (Mohamed et al., 2005). The brine returns to the sea and spreads according to different aspects (wind direction, wave height and tidal). Desalination plants could have several impacts on the surrounding environment. The major concern of these impacts near the outfall brine discharge due to its physical and chemical features (Younos, 2005; Abdul-Wahab, 2007; WHO, 2007).
Radiation and radioactivity in the environment have natural and man-made sources. Exposure to natural radiation represents the most significant part of the total exposure to radiation in the environment (Saleh, 2012; UNSCEAR, 2008). Only natural radionuclides pteryxin Supplier with half-lives comparable with the age of the earth or their corresponding decay products existing in terrestrial material such as 232Th, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K are of great interest. The levels of these radionuclides are relatively distributed in soil based on the nature of its geological formations (Al-Jundi et al., 2003; Orabi et al., 2006).

Narz dzia badawcze W prezentowanych badaniach pozytywna adaptacja

Narzędzia badawcze. W prezentowanych badaniach pozytywna adaptacja traktowana jest jako wymiar zdrowia psychicznego dzieci i młodzieży i ujmowana jako stan, na który składają się trzy aspekty: obiektywny–negatywny, obiektywny–pozytywny i subiektywny. Aspekt obiektywny–negatywny (kliniczny) to nasilenie zaburzeń psychicznych odzwierciedlających mechanizm eksternalizacji lub internalizacji problemów; aspekt obiektywny–pozytywny (rozwojowy) to poziom realizacji oczekiwań społecznych kierowanych do dziecka w określonym wieku, Fulvestrant aspekt subiektywny to ocena zadowolenia z własnego życia. Wymiarami pozytywnej adaptacji dzieci z rodzin z problemem alkoholowym są zatem: 1) niski poziom objawów psychopatologicznych w zakresie eksternalizacji i internalizacji problemów (wymiar kliniczny, obiektywny); 2) wysoki poziom realizacji zadań rozwojowych danego etapu życia (wymiar rozwojowy, obiektywny); 3) wysoki poziom satysfakcji życiowej (wymiar subiektywny).
Kwestionariusz Diagnostyczny Achenbacha w trzech wersjach: ocena poziomu zaburzeń dzieci w wersji dla nauczycieli (Teachers Report Form; TRF) lub dla rodziców (Child Behavioral Checklist; CBCL); ocena poziomu zaburzeń młodzieży w wersji dla młodzieży (Youth Self-Report; YSR). Wykorzystano skalę VII i VIII do oceny poziomu eksternalizacji oraz skalę I, II i III do oszacowania poziomu internalizacji problemów. Test traktowany jako arkusz obserwacyjny został zaadaptowany do warunków polskich przez Wolańczyka [35]. Kwestionariusz ten jest często stosowany w badaniach empirycznych do oceny poziomu występowania zaburzeń psychicznych u dzieci i młodzieży.
Kwestionariusz Realizacji Zadań Rozwojowych służący do oceny poziomu realizacji zadań rozwojowych wieku szkolnego, wczesnej i późnej adolescencji, autorstwa Grzegorzewskiej [36]. Kwestionariusz zawiera 12 pozycji w dwóch wariantach, osoba badana wybiera zdanie, które do niej pasuje. Do pomiaru wybrano trzy zadania rozwojowe dla każdego z trzech okresów życia. W okresie szkolnym są to: nabywanie sprawności szkolnych, kooperacja społeczna oraz poczucie kompetencji, w okresie dorastania: niezależność od rodziców, kontakty z rówieśnikami i planowanie przyszłości, a w okresie późnej adolescencji: autonomia i tożsamość, nawiązywanie satysfakcjonujących relacji heteroseksualnych i przygotowanie do pracy zawodowej. Uzyskane wyniki mieszczą się w przedziale 12–24 punktów. Narzędzie to wydaje się cechować dobrymi parametrami psychometrycznymi. Współczynniki rzetelności α Cronbacha, określone na grupie 120 osób, w każdej grupie wiekowej przybierają wartości z przedziału 0,77–0,92. Trafność testu wykazano metodą sprawdzania różnic międzygrupowych. Uzyskano zadowalające rezultaty [36].
Uczniowska Skala Satysfakcji Życiowej (Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale; BMSLSS) – wersja skrócona [37] w polskiej adaptacji Grzegorzewskiej [20]. Skala służy do oceny poczucia satysfakcji życiowej w głównych obszarach funkcjonowania, takich jak rodzina, rówieśnicy, doświadczenia szkolne, ocena siebie, dom mieszkalny, całe życie. Badanie rzetelności skali dało zadowalające rezultaty (współczynnik α Cronbacha wyniósł od 0,75 do 0,81 w zależności od wieku badanych) [37]. Test był normalizowany w Stanach Zjednoczonych, w Polsce bywa wykorzystywany w nielicznych badaniach [20, 38].
Zmienne i wskaźniki. W przyjętej procedurze badawczej wyróżniono zmienną niezależną (rodzina pochodzenia osoby badanej) oraz zmienne zależne I stopnia – poziom adaptacji i II stopnia – objawy psychopatologiczne, realizacja zadań rozwojowych i satysfakcja z życia. Wyróżnione zmienne zależne i ich wskaźniki przedstawiono w tabeli I.
Analiza statystyczna danych. Biorąc pod uwagę wyniki badań empirycznych zawartych w literaturze przedmiotu, zakłada się, że dzieci z rodzin z problemem alkoholowym, mimo narażenia na podobnie niekorzystne warunki życiowe, będą różniły się między sobą efektami rozwojowymi w postaci pozytywnej lub negatywnej adaptacji. Celem prezentowanych analiz statystycznych była zatem ocena szans wystąpienia pozytywnej adaptacji u dzieci z grupy klinicznej w porównaniu z grupą kontrolną. Na początku zastosowano niehierarchiczną analizę skupień metodą k-średnich (quick cluster), która pozwoliła na wyodrębnienie homogenicznych podgrup i dokonanie pomiaru specyfiki ujawnianych podobieństw pod względem wyróżnionych zmiennych. Szanse zakwalifikowania dzieci z grupy klinicznej do profilu wysoko adaptacyjnego oceniono za pomocą ilorazu szans (odds ratio), wyznaczonego dla danej próby. Iloraz szans (OR) określa stosunek szansy wystąpienia pozytywnej adaptacji w grupie klinicznej do wystąpienia tego samego zdarzenia w grupie kontrolnej. Za pomocą wskaźnika OR określamy zatem, jaka jest szansa – większa bądź mniejsza – wystąpienia pozytywnej adaptacji w badanej grupie dzieci z rodzin z problemem alkoholowym. Dla wyznaczonego ilorazu szans określono przedziały ufności z założeniem 95-procentowego prawdopodobieństwa (95%CI, Confidence Interval). Przedział ufności pozwolił określić wartość ilorazu szans w populacji dzieci z rodzin Fulvestrant phytoplankton alkoholowych na podstawie oceny poziomu adaptacji.

glibenclamide The treatment of RCC in pregnancy has been reviewed

The treatment of RCC in pregnancy has been reviewed, but the guidelines are not perfect yet. Louglin [4] recommends radical nephrectomy for all women with RCC discovered during the first trimester. For RCC discovered during the second trimester he glibenclamide advocates observation until a gestational age of 28 weeks to make sure that fetal lung maturity has been attained before radical nephrectomy is carried out. And for RCC discovered in the third trimester he recommends that radical nephrectomy with simultaneous Cesarean section be carried out.
Other investigators recommend radical nephrectomy irrespective of the stage of pregnancy [14,15].


Conflict of interest

Le pronostic du cancer de la prostate s’est beaucoup amélioré, grâce aux différents progrès réalisés dans le diagnostic de ce cancer à des stades localisés dans les pays développés. Cette tendance favorable ne se reflète pas dans de nombreux pays africains dans lesquels, le diagnostic de cancer de prostate se fait encore dans la majorité des cas à des stades avancés de la maladie [1]. L’adénocarcinome géant de la prostate est une forme peu fréquente de cancer dans tous ces pays et il pose des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les différentes masses pelviennes [2]. Nous rapportons un cas qui a été pris en charge dans notre service.

M. KG âgé de 60ans sans antécédents pathologiques particuliers, a été reçu en consultation pour une dysurie à type d’efforts de poussées mictionnels et une pollakiurie mixte (4 mictions nocturnes). Ce tableau évoluerait depuis 18 mois environ. A l’examen physique, le patient avait un assez bon état général, une volumineuse tuméfaction hypogastrique fixe remontant vers l’ombilic à bord supérieur convexe, à contours réguliers, à surface lisse, rénitente, indolore et mate à la percussion. Cet aspect était évocateur d’une rétention vésicale chronique incomplète d’urines. Le drainage vésical a permis de recueillir environ 100ml d’urines limpides. Le toucher rectal combiné à la palpation hypogastrique a mis en évidence une tumeur de prostate irrégulière, dure et mal limitée. Les examens complémentaires ont révélé un taux de PSA à 8694ng/ml (dosage immunologique Architect PSA total), une fonction rénale normale et un ECBU stérile. L’échographie des voies urinaires a lungfish mis en évidence une tumeur prostatique estimée à environ 936,6g. A la biopsie prostatique, il existait un adénocarcinome avec un score de Gleason 7 (4+3). La TDM thoraco-abdomino-pelvienne a permis d’objectiver un volumineux processus tumoral de la prostate (140×110×85mm) infiltrant la graisse péri vésicale, le rectum avec urétérohydronéphrose bilatérale plus marquée à droite et des localisations secondaires pulmonaire, hépatique, ganglionnaire et osseuse (Fig. 1). La tumeur a été classée T4N1M1c.
Le traitement a consisté à l’injection sous cutanée de Zoladex 10,8mg (goséréline) associé au Casodex 50mg (bicalutamide) (commencé une semaine avant la goséréline et administré à la posologie d’un comprimé par jour pendant un mois). Le patient a été revu 3 mois après l’instauration de l’hormonothérapie, son état général était bon. Le taux de PSA avait diminué à 155ng/ml et à la TDM thoraco-abdomino-pelvienne, il y’avait une nette régression des volumes tumoraux prostatique (58×58×55mm) (Fig. 2) et ganglionnaire, avec une persistance des localisations secondaires hépatique, pulmonaire et osseuse. Le traitement hormonal a été maintenu avec des rendez vous de contrôle tous les 3 mois.

L’adénocarcinome géant de la prostate a été confondu à un volumineux globe vésical lors de l’examen initial de l’abdomen de notre patient. Cette manifestation clinique ne semble pas isolée, car Kurokawa [2] a également rapporté une importante distension abdominale chez un patient ayant aussi un adénocarcinome prostatique géant. Dans son cas comme dans le nôtre, c’est l’imagerie qui a permis de mettre en évidence l’origine prostatique de la masse abdomino-pelvienne. L’adénocarcinome n’est pas le seul type histologique de cancer de prostate pouvant donner des tumeurs géantes. En effet, d’autres formes ont également été décrites notamment le cancer de prostate neuro endocrinien qui peut être à l’origine d’un envahissement important extensif de la glande [3].