Biological treatment methods have been

Biological treatment methods have been selected to remove contamination from textile wastewater that contains salt, because they are cost-effective, non-toxic, sustainable, and environmentally friendly (Banat, Nigam, Singh, & Marchant, 1996; Xiao & Roberts, 2010).
The sequencing batch reactor is an effective activated sludge process used for treating saline wastewater (Mesquita, Amaral, Ferreira, & Coelho, 2009). This biological treatment method involves a strong system, simple function, and high flexibility in procedures (Mohan, Rao, Prasad, Madhavi, & Sharma, 2005).
Equalization, aeration, and clarification can all be achieved using a single batch reactor (SBR). The SBR is appropriate for wastewater treatment applications characterized by low or intermittent flow conditions. Different effluents such as municipal, domestic, hypersaline, tannery, brewery, dairy wastewaters, and landfill leachates can be treated using this biological system (Mace & Mata-Alvarez, 2002).
SBR is considered a biological system for decolorizing the textile dye including Blue Bezaktive 150, a reactive dye; according to the results, decolourisation rates were obtained in the range of 88–97% for different volumetric dye loading rates (3–15gdye/m3d) (Khouni, Marrot, & Amar, 2012).
The color removal efficiency of the SBR system increased when mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were increased. The color removal efficiency of disperse dye treatments (Disperse Blue 60 and Disperse Red 60) was over 98% at an MLSS of 4000mg/L; COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies were also quite high (Sirianuntapiboon & Maneewon, 2012).
According to different studies, high loads of salt (0.5–5%) decreases the efficiency of biological treatment in wastewater treatment plant (Salvadó et al., 2001); because saline loads reduce the metabolic functions of activated sludge microorganisms (Mahmoud & Davis, 1979; Woolard & Irvine, 1995) but, gradually adapting the microorganisms to high saline conditions can help minimizing the effect caused by salt (Bassin, Dezotti, & Sant’Anna, 2011). A gradual increase in the salt concentration (from 0 to 30g NaCl/L) has less impact on the COD removal in the aerobic system with salt-adapted microorganisms rather than the one with non-adapted smo inhibitor (Bassin et al., 2012).

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of aerobic microorganisms of an SBR treatment system to remove COD from high saline textile wastewater. The activated sludge microorganisms could tolerate high salt concentrations and remove 60% of Brilliant Blue R dye from wastewater at a TDS concentration of 5000mg/L; thus, SBR as a cost effective treatment system can be used for decolorization of textile wastewater even in saline conditions.

Conflict of interest

The DSTATCOM can be used in a distribution system with the prime objective of compensating the reactive power demand of the load thus, relieving the source the reactive power loading. This may lead to better voltage regulation of the source and the utility of the source can also be raised to its full capacity, as the power factor on the source side is raised to unity. DSTATCOM can also be used for balancing the currents drawn from the source in the face of the load currents being unbalanced because of the unbalanced load. DSTATCOM can also be used for mitigating harmonics in the source current, even if the load is of non linear in nature. In such applications, the harmonic currents drawn by the load will be met by the DSATCOM. A close consideration of the literature related to the developments happening around the DTATCOM reveals that there have been four different directions of research going on. They are:
Power quality issues in power systems are analyzed by Ewald and Mohammad (2008). The use of FACTS devices to address the power quality issues in transmission and distribution has been presented by Padiyar (2008). A detailed review on power electronic solutions to power quality problems has been explained by Sannino, Svensson, and Larsson (2003). The impact of harmonics on power quality issues and its acceptable limit are presented in IEEE Std 519 (1992). In a study, the authors proposed the analysis, simulation and control of DSTATCOM in isolated distributed three-phase four-wire systems (Singh, Adya, Mittal, & Gupta, 2006). In order to improve the performance, a study used the parallel connected hybrid power filters, operated at different switching frequencies (Bhattacharya, Chakraborty, & Bhattacharya, 2012). In Montero, Cadaval, and Gonzalez (2007), different control strategies, followed for the control of shunt active filters, are compared; A non-iterative optimized algorithm, for shunt active power filter under distorted and unbalanced supply voltages, was proposed by Kanjiya, Khadkikar, and Zeineldin (2013). An advanced current control strategy for three-phase shunt active power filters was proposed by Trinh and Lee (2013). A robust adaptive control strategy of active power filters for various harmonic compensation, power-factor correction and balancing of nonlinear loads has been proposed by De Araujo Ribeiro, de Azevedo, and de Sousa (2012). In Singh and Singh (2012), Longhui, Fang, Pengbo, Hongyu, and Zhaoan (2007), they simulated a DSTATCOM for voltage fluctuation. The design considerations for DSP controlled 400Hz shunt active power filter were proposed in a study by Hu, Shi, Lu, and Xing (2012). Theoretical investigation of original and modified instantaneous PQ theory has been done by Depenbrock, Staudt, and Wrede (2003). PQ transformation to improve the performance of synchronous reference frame controllers in shunt active power filters was analyzed by Pigazo, Moreno, and Estebanez (2009). Operation of a DSTATCOM in voltage control mode has been presented in various studies by Mishra, Ghosh, and Joshi (2003). A self-tuning PI Controller for a DSTATCOM using particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been proposed by Liu and Hsu (2010). Fuzzy logic-based control of DC link voltage in a DSTATCOM was proposed by Suryanarayana and Mishra (2008).

Lycopodium clavatum LC commonly known as club

Lycopodium clavatum (LC), commonly known as “club moss,” is a creeping perennial plant found in almost all parts of the world and is considered a great medicinal plant used in many traditional and alternative medicines including homeopathy. The spores are of major medicinal value, and their alcoholic extract is commonly used as homeopathic mother tincture [6]. Recently, we have reported that apigenin is the major flavonoid component present in the crude ethanolic extract of LC [7]. Briefly, homeopathic mother tincture of LC (Boiron laboratories, Lyon, France) was first evaporated; the dried residue was used for column chromatography and eluted by chloroform, chloroform/methanol, and chloroform/acetonitrile. Four fractions (F1–F4) were pooled from 16 fractions, based on thin layer chromatography (TLC). F2 was eluted by chloroform/methanol (9:1) to obtain four subfractions (F2.1–F2.4). These were evaluated by TLC using chloroform/methanol (19:1). F2.2 and F2.3 showed one clear spot each. These two subfractions were pooled, molecular weight was confirmed with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ES-MS), and repeated TLC of these two subfractions yielded characteristic nuclear magnetic resonance 1H and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic features typical of apigenin. Several lines of evidence from cell culture and animal experiments, as well as epidemiological studies, suggest that flavonoids from plant origin are able to protect human skin from UV radiations [8]. It has been shown earlier that topical application of apigenin inhibits UV-induced tumor formation in a mouse model of skin carcinogenesis [9]. However, it is not yet known if apigenin acts by repairing damaged DNA and/or through any antioxidative mechanisms when skin is exposed to UV-B radiation.
Therefore, the hypotheses to be tested in the present study include: (1) whether apigenin extracted from the crude ethanolic extract of LC had any protective effect in human influenza a virus in vitro and in a mouse model in vivo when exposed to UV-B radiation; (2) if apigenin could render protection to UV-induced DNA damage, and if it did, whether it was mediated through the repair of DNA and reduction of ROS generation; (3) whether apigenin could reduce the formation of CPDs in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and mice exposed to UV-B radiation; and (5) if it could, then whether it could also repair and retrieve UV-B-induced DNA damage through enhanced activity of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes; and finally, (5) whether apigenin had any significant antioxidant activity.

Materials and methods


UV light interacts with many types of cellular macromolecules, leading to the formation of photoproducts following energy absorption. Our study has shown that apigenin, a flavonoid from influenza a virus L. clavatum, protects keratinocytes and mice skin tissues from UV-B-induced DNA damage in vitro and in vivo, respectively (Fig. 5). Several modifications of DNA, such as CPDs, normally get removed by photoreactivation and NER systems. In addition to direct damage to DNA and proteins, perturbations of the cellular redox equilibrium also occur as a result of release of free radicals following UV-B irradiation [15] subjecting the cells to oxidative stress, inflammation, and especially DNA damage. To cope with the deleterious effects of UV-B radiation, both plants and animals are equipped with various protective molecules (e.g., antioxidants such as ascorbic acid [16] and proteins involved in DNA repair and detoxification of ROS). However, this endogenous protective system may be overwhelmed by prolonged and repeated UV exposure; therefore, additional protection may be required. The results of this study show that apigenin could significantly enhance the repair of UV-B-induced damaged DNA and CPD formation in vitro and in vivo, mainly through acceleration of the NER repair system. This correlates with the findings of Romanova et al [17], who investigated the DNA-protective effect of flavonoids such as luteolin and quercetin, in vitro. Our findings also revealed that apigenin could effectively reduce UV-B-induced oxidative stress in UV-B exposed mice skin cells, which was consistent with the findings of Seelinger et al [18].

Other studies indicate the defect may involve the number and

Other studies indicate the defect may involve the number and/or function of Tregs in type 1 DM [31]. Barzaghi et al., reported that CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ T cells median values obtained in IPEX-like patients were not significantly lower than those detected in healthy controls, but by using demethylation analysis of FOXP3 locus; results showed quantitative defect of regulatory T cells in patients thanhealthy control with statistical significance difference [11].
In case no 14, the patient was diagnosed as SLE while his CD4+ CD25+% was zero. This patient suffered from polyneuropathy followed by diabetes then two years later he developed pancytopenia, with positive Anti nuclear Antibodies (ANA), Anti double stranded Antibodies (Anti DNA), and development of rapid renal affection with lupus cerebritis. He also had positive anti-thyroglobulin selective estrogen receptor modulators and anti-microsomal antibodies with normal thyroid function. This finding was similar to most of studies that found a significant decreased percentage of CD4+ CD25+ cells in patients with SLE as compared to healthy controls [32–34].
Other studies showed that patients who were untreated and/or newly diagnosed with SLE, showed negative correlation between percentage of CD4+CD25+ and the clinical activity of the disease, this was also noted with pediatric patients and some studies reported an inverse correlation between number of CD4+CD25+ and disease activity as well as autoantibody levels [33,35].

Several study limitations were encountered, the small sample size because of the rarity of the condition. The confounding effect of immunosuppressive therapy which could not be stopped due to severity of the disease, functional Treg assays were not conducted and might have explained why there were patients with CD4+CD25+high similar to controls. Further studies with Foxp3 expression need to be assessed as it is a key for Treg regulation mechanisms, using the demethylation methods.

In conclusion, diabetic children with multiple autoimmune features may demonstrate CD4+CD25+high cells deficiency favoring the immune disequilibrium.

Conflict of interest
The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common acute leukemia mostly affecting adults, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow and impaired production of normal blood cells [1]. The mechanisms for AML genesis are still rarely understood. Several genetic polymorphisms have been determined as possible risk factors for leukemia [2].
Recent evidence indicates that enzymes involved in carcinogen activation or deactivation as well as their encoding genes, might play critical roles in determining individual susceptibility to cancers. Polymorphisms in these genes encoding the enzymes, possibly by altering their functions, could affect carcinogen activation (either increase or decrease) and modulating DNA repair processes [3]. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are essential role in the phase I dependent metabolism of drugs and all other xenobiotics [4].
The CYP3A enzymes are involved in the metabolism of more than 50% of all drugs presently on the market, and they contribute in the metabolic activation and metabolism of various carcinogens such as aflatoxin B and many anticancer drugs. Cytochrome P450 3A4 is found to be the most plentiful cytochrome P450 in adult human liver and small intestine [5].
Genetic polymorphisms within the drug-metabolizing enzymes are quite general and may participate to the risk of developing cancers. CYP3A4*1B is considered the only allele that appears to influence the CYP3A4 expression [6].

Patients and methods
The study was approved by the Cairo University Hospital Research Ethics Committee (REC) and informed consent was obtained from each patient before starting the data collection. The study included 77 newly diagnosed AML patients which presented to the Adult and Pediatric Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University in the period between April 2010 and October 2011. Diagnosis was performed according to clinical, morphological, cytochemical and Flow Cytometric analysis. The recruited patients comprised of 43 males and 34 females between the age of 4 and 83years with a median of 35years and control group composed of 72 individual comprising 53 male and 19 female was randomly selected from blood donors; their ages ranged from 19 to 53years with a median age 31.5years.

The results of treatment with stability plate open reduction with

The results of treatment with stability plate (open reduction with internal fixation) are satisfactory, but they are countered with a considerable rate of complications. The intra-articular kras-pdeδ pathway of the screws (screw joint perforation 13%–23%) and osteonecrosis (3%–16%) that involve surgical revision rate of 13%–26% are of particular concern. Additionally, there is a risk of damage to soft tissues and devascularization, which results in considerable postoperative pain and stiffness.
The treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures with hemiarthroplasty showed mostly disappointing results because significant pain relief is associated with a far less predictable functional outcome. Hemiarthroplasty still requires osteosynthesis of the tuberosities where they are fractured and should be reserved for selected cases with higher AVN risk or with massive articular comminution.
In scientific literature, there are several works that analyze the results of the IM nailing applied to humeral fractures. Adedapo and Ikpeme demonstrated good results in 23 patients with complex humeral fractures. Georgousis et al. demonstrated 83% of good to excellent results in 2- and 3-part fractures both young and old people. According to Sosef et al., IM nail is of value for (displaced) 2-, 3- and even 4-part proximal humeral fractures and enables early postoperative mobilization with a limited amount of pain. Our results are in line with the literature, but we wish to remark that patient selection and appropriate fracture evaluation are key to achieve better outcomes in complex humeral fractures.
Possible complications related to proximal humerus IM nailing, such as fractures of the tuberosity associated to the entry point, varus malalignment and lack of proximal fixation, are potentially reducible due to the current development of IM devices. A straight design that allows for a more medial entry point has been proposed. The more medial entry point reduces the risk of iatrogenic fractures of the tuberosity more than the curved nails. The incision of the rotator cuff could be done in a more vascularized area that heals easily, thus reducing the risk of painful shoulder after intervention. Moreover, the alternative locking mechanism may reduce the risk of migration of the screws, providing better proximal stability.

Conflict of interest statement

Thyroid storm is a rarely encountered clinical condition. The broad range of symptoms associated with this disease can complicate the diagnosis. Typically, it manifests itself as a state of exaggerated hyperthyroidism accompanied by systemic organ dysfunction, which could mimic severe sepsis. The mortality rate was about 10%, most probably due to multiple organ failure.

Case report
A 40-year-old woman has a history of hyperthyroidism diagnosed 5–6 years ago. She did not take any medication after the diagnosis was made thoroughly. Seven days ago, she developed progressive edema of lower limbs, exercise intolerance and exertional dyspnea. Besides, she had abdominal bloating and diarrhea. Progressive fatigue was noted in recent three days. At our Emergency Department, ascites was noticed and the chest X-ray pattern showed right-sided consolidation with massive pleural effusion (Figure 1A). The cardiac echo showed heart failure. The electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation. The C-reactive protein was 14 mg/dL. The serum lactate was 9.5 mmol/L and procalcitonin was 3.8 ng/mL. Severe sepsis was suspected, which was complicated with multiple organ dysfunction, including lung edema, bilateral massive pleural effusions, congestive liver, ascites, and acute respiratory failure. Thus piperacillin-tazobactam was given. The thyroid echo showed bilateral thyroid goiter (Figure 1B). According to the history of patient and the blood thyroid-stimulating hormone of 0.03 μIU/mL (normal range, 0.35–5.50 μIU/mL), toxic goiter with thyroid storm was suspected. Thus methimazole and Lugol\’s iodine solution were given to the patient at the intensive care unit. Later, laboratory results included an elevated free tetraiodothyronine of 5.67 ng/dL; thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, 76.9% (normal range, < 14%); antimicrosomal antibody titer, 1:102400 (normal range, < 1:100) and anti-thyroglobulin titer, 1:100 (normal range < 1:100). The blood and sputum cultures were negative. Diuretic was given for bilateral massive pleural effusions with ascites. As the chest X-ray pattern showed remarkable improvement (Figure 1C), she was then discharged.

O breve lapso de tempo

O breve lapso de tempo entre as intervenções e as avaliações empregadas na maior parte dos estudos não permitiu observar se as mudanças nos conhecimentos, nas habilidades e práticas profissionais e hospitalares são capazes de perdurar longo prazo após as intervenções. Fatores como a rotatividade de pessoal e mudanças políticas poderiam interferir no resultado de avaliações conduzidas em intervalos de tempo pós‐treinamento maiores. Para a manutenção da repercussão dessas capacitações, faz‐se necessária a aplicação de treinamentos periódicos.
Quanto ao cumprimento dos Dez Passos, a evidência encontrada na revisão foi menos consistente. Deve ser lembrado que essas práticas não dependem apenas da capacitação profissional, mas também do apoio administrativo da gestão para mudanças institucionais.

Conflitos de interesse

Crescimento e desenvolvimento são dois fenômenos complexos característicos da faixa etária pediátrica. Ambos são inter‐relacionados. O crescimento depende da interação de fatores genéticos, os quais amiodarone hcl têm sua expressão modulada por características ambientais, socioeconômicas, emocionais e nutricionais. Assim, a alimentação é importante não somente para proporcionar pleno crescimento e desenvolvimento, mas também por estar envolvida na gênese dos principais distúrbios nutricionais na infância, como desnutrição energético‐proteica, obesidade, deficiência de ferro e hipovitaminose A.
Um aspecto que tem recebido atenção crescente nas últimas décadas é a relação entre a alimentação e o estado nutricional nos primeiros anos de vida com o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas na adultícia. Nesse contexto, revisão sistemática demonstrou que o aleitamento natural em longo prazo se associa com menores valores de pressão arterial, colesterol total, prevalência de sobrepeso e diabetes mellitus tipo 2, além de melhor desenvolvimento intelectual.
Com amiodarone hcl em estudos transversais feitos no Brasil nas décadas de 1970, 1980 e 1990 constatou‐se rápido declínio na prevalência de desnutrição energético‐proteica e aumento na prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade, o que caracteriza o fenômeno da transição nutricional. As mudanças observadas apresentam particularidades segundo regiões geográficas do Brasil e classes sociais e são resultantes de profundas mudanças ocorridas no país nas últimas décadas. Deve ser destacado que a transição nutricional é um fenômeno mundial. No mundo, a disponibilidade de alimentos cresceu 10%, com consequente redução na prevalência de desnutrição e aumento na obesidade, que se transformou em grave preocupação em termos de saúde pública. Considera‐se que esse fenômeno é explicado, pelo menos em parte, pela influência do crescimento econômico, da urbanização e da globalização no padrão alimentar.
Apesar da importância do padrão alimentar do lactente e do pré‐escolar, não existem, no Brasil, dados de abrangência nacional que abordem a questão, com exceção da Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher (PNDS), a última feita em 2006. Deve ser destacado que os dados do PNDS são fundamentalmente qualitativos e relacionados a amamentação e alimentação complementar.
Como há necessidade de se explorar a produção científica adicional ao PNDS sobre o padrão alimentar na infância, o presente artigo buscou reunir não somente informações sobre a qualidade da alimentação do lactente e pré‐escolar brasileiro na atualidade, mas também destacar quais as principais inadequações relacionadas ao consumo de nutrientes nessa população. Se considerarmos que há uma preocupação quanto à influência das inadequações nutricionais ocorridas desde a gravidez até a idade pré‐escolar na ocorrência de doenças e agravos não transmissíveis em longo prazo, bem como a elevada prevalência, no Brasil, de doenças carenciais na infância, o presente estudo tem como objetivo revisar estudos sobre a alimentação do lactente e do pré‐escolar brasileiro, entre os 6 meses e os 6 anos, e analisar informações qualitativas e quantitativas do consumo dos principais grupos de alimentos e de nutrientes.

The duration of edema and time needed

The duration of edema and time needed to return to work was significantly lower in patients that received hydrocortisone injection. This finding went with Bianchin et al. [11] attributing this to the anti-inflammatory effect of the drug and the stress response of the body. Also, post-operative complications of steroid injection were a concern in the current study, however only one patient complained of gastric hyperacidity. In this context, other clinical trials that used higher doses of steroids like dexamethasone in comparable surgeries, did not report significant complications [20].

A single IM injection of hydrocortisone sodium succinate 100mg could be used to reduce the immediate post-operative scrotal edema after inguinal varicocelectomy without obvious side effects.

Conflict of interest
The authors have declared no conflict of interest..

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the abnormal or dysregulated proliferation of megakaryocytes in a normocellular marrow. It is a rare disorder, with an estimated annual incidence of 0.6–2.5 per 100,000 people [1].
The phenotypic behaviour of this disease varies widely from asymptomatic or incidental discovery of thrombocytosis to presentation with major vascular occlusive events. The primary concerns of ET that require prompt diagnosis and management are the risk of thrombosis and progression into myelofibrosis or acute leukaemia [2]. The clonal nature of the disease is explained to a certain extent by the presence of the JAK2 V617F KPT-185 in up to 50% of patients [3]. In a small subset of patients (1–2%), somatic mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor cMPL are found [4]. In the recent past, CALR mutations were found in 73% of ET cases, irrespective of JAK2 or MPL mutations [5]. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including del (20q) and trisomy 8, are detected in fewer than 10% of cases at the time of diagnosis [6]. Improvement in next-generation sequencing technology has led to the study of the genomic profile of MPN patients in more detail, and new genetic alterations, including epigenetic events in pathogenesis of MPN, have been identified. The effects of these genetic alterations on the clinical phenotype of the disease are uncertain and require further evaluation.

Case scenario
A 34-year-old gentleman with isolated thrombocytosis (platelet count 1800×109/L), was discovered incidentally during a workup for a viral illness. There was no history of blood disorders in the patient’s family. The peripheral smear was essentially normal except for marked platelet anisocytosis. There was no splenomegaly on examination. Bone marrow biopsy was consistent with essential thrombocythemia (Fig. 1A). Reticulin fibrosis was grade 0 (Fig. 1B). During initial molecular screening, screened MPL exon 10 (W515X), Jak2 exon 12 by Sanger sequencing and JAK2 (V617F) by PCR. Molecular testing for JAK2, CALR exon 9 and cMPL mutations were negative. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal male karyotype. The patient was initially managed with two sessions of plateletpheresis. Hydroxyurea was started at 1g/day, and the dose was then gradually escalated to 2g/day. He achieved only partial remission with maximum doses of hydroxyurea. He was switched to anagrelide at 2mg/day. During the course of the disease, he did not experience any haemorrhagic or thrombotic complications, but constitutional symptoms such as pruritus, fatigue, numbness, and tingling in fingers affected his quality of life. Interferon alpha 2A was started at 3million units three times a week, but due to adverse events (severe myalgias and flu-like symptoms), it could not be continued. Considering the lack of response to first- and second-line therapies, Ruxolitinib (a JAK2 inhibitor) was started. The platelet count did not respond to Ruxolitinib, but there was a clinically significant improvement noticed in the constitutional symptoms.

br Simulation study It may be of interest to

Simulation study
It may be of interest to make a comparison study among all the preceding variance components estimates. Since it UNC 0642 may be impossible to do any theoretical comparisons about the performance of them, thus one has to resort to compare through Monte Carlo simulation. Following to Melo et al. [26], nested factorial design with two crossed factors and one nested factor is adopted in this context in order to identify the behavior of variance components estimators which can be described as: where is the effect of the a level of factor A, is the effect of the b level of factor B, is the effect of the c level of factor C nested within the a level of factor A, is the interaction effect between the factor A and B, is the interaction effect between the factor B and C instead within the a level of factor A and is a random term. It is assumed that all the effects in the model are fixed parameters except , and are normally independently distributed such that:
Since the fixed effects are out of our interest, thus one can fix all the fixed parameters at one. Oppositely, the comparison process requires to be conducted under a variety of variance components configurations, difference of imbalance degrees and multiple sample sizes. Following to Rao and Heckler [7], Table 1 displays the variance components values used in the simulation. A lot of measures of imbalance have been introduced in the literature, see Khuri et al. [27], which can be selected with the aim of covering different levels of imbalance of and various sample sizes. According to Qie and Xu [28], the measure which is introduced by Ahrens and Pincus [28] can be reliable for reflecting the imbalance effect of which can be formulated as:where is the grand sample size and . Ahrens and Pincus [29] illustrated that the values of range from up to one, the smaller values refer a greater degree of imbalance, while the larger values are only for balanced case. Table 2 presents the patterns of imbalance according to different sample sizes throughout the simulation.
For each variance components configuration and pattern of imbalance combination, 2000 independent random samples were generated, then all the negative estimates are forced to be zero. The estimated bias, MSE and probability of getting negative estimates are shown in Table 3.
According to Table 3, a number of conclusions are drawn from the results for all the patterns and designs which are summarized in the following points:
In order to enhance the numerical comparison process, EQDG’s which provide a powerful graphical tool for the comparisons are exhibited for all the above estimators which are given in Fig. 1. In addition the norm of EQM is computed and obtained as shown in Table 4.
The extracted results from both EQDG and EQM coincide with the above conclusions as MREMLcan be donated as the best estimator since neurotransmitters has the least MSE, whereas MMINQUE2 has the highest variability among the above estimators. On the other hand all the estimators based on are better than those based on MINQUE and . Furthermore, one can notice that the degrees of freedom have substantially negative effect on the norm of all above estimators, thus the norm associated with is lower than the norm associated with which the latter is lower than the norm associated with .

In this article, two new estimators based on IAUE principle are introduced for estimating the variance components in the mixed linear model. The aim of this article was to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimators relative to various estimators via simulation studies. The model we used is nested-factorial model with two fixed crossed factorial and one nested random factor under regularity assumptions. Several criteria such as bias, MSE, probability of getting negative values and the norm of EQM are used to show the performance of the estimators under the study. From the numerical analysis, we have found that the estimators based on restricted likelihood function have desirable properties as long as the data have normal distribution. Further, the proposed estimators may be appropriate estimators since they have less bias and less MSE than the estimator based on almost unbiased approach it may be important to study some details in the proposed algorithms in the literature which used for computing the variance components estimates and its effect to the statistical characteristics e.g. [19,23].

br Methods Variables related to the newborn were identified

Variables related to the newborn were identified, such as gender, gestational age, classification in relation to gestational age and birth weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5min, presence of other malformations, location of the anatomical defect in relation to the umbilical cord, aspect of the externalized bowel loops (simple: no alterations; complex: necrosis, ischemia, perforation, stenosis and atresia), content of externalized viscera (only intestine or associated with other organs), the size of the abdominal wall defect, time until the surgery, whether bowel resection was performed in the first surgery, the need for further interventions during hospitalization, time of mechanical ventilation, number of antibiotic therapy cycles, use of muscle relaxant, and occurrence of hemodynamic instability (shock). Nutritional approach data were assessed, such as time of parenteral nutrition, day of life when the diet was initiated, volume of gastric residue in 24h before the start of the diet, day of life when full diet was reached, sodium and serum albumin measurement, whether or not enteral nutrition was interrupted after its start, weight at discharge, and weight at discharge/birthweight ratio.
R software®, version 3.0.3 for Windows (Microsoft®, WA, USA), was used for the univariate and multivariate analysis. The stepwise method was used to select the significant variables involved with length of hospital stay of newborns, whereas the forward method was used in the univariate analysis, considering salubrinal significance level of 25%. The Mann–Whitney test was used for the univariate analysis, and time was stratified until discharge over the categorical variables, whereas Spearman\’s correlation test was used to associate time until discharge with other quantitative variables.
The selected variables were used in the multiple Poisson regression, applying the backward method, with a level of significance of 5%. The final regression, after the backward and forward procedures, was termed stepwise Poisson regression. The quasi-likelihood method was used for the phenomena of over- or under-dispersion for model estimation, allowing the estimation of robust variance to these phenomena. Nagelkerke pseudo R2 was calculated for logistic regression, while R2 adjusted to log-linear models was calculated for Poisson regression.

The characteristics of newborns with gastroschisis submitted to primary closure and the variables related to their nutritional status are shown in Table 1.
The parenteral nutrition time of 64.6% of the newborns was ≤22 days. Gastric residue was ≤25mL in the last 24h before the start of enteral nutrition in 57.4% of newborns. As for the age of start of enteral feeding, 52.1% of newborns started enteral diet until the 12th day of life, and 58.3% of the newborns reached full diet within an average of 23 days.
The mean value found for serum Na+ was 126.8mEq/mL, whereas the mean value for serum albumin levels was 2.4g/dL.
At the hospital stay analysis, the results were arranged according to the newborn and nutritional characteristics (Table 2).
Regarding the assessed nutritional aspects, ventilation was possible to identify the following variables (with significant value, p<0.05) to explain the length of hospital stay: “Interrupted the enteral diet after its start,” “Weight at discharge/birth weight ratio,” “Parenteral nutrition time,” and “Day of life when the newborn reached full diet” (Table 3). Subsequently, these variables were applied in multiple Poisson regression; the regression model is shown in Table 4. Using pseudo R2 (multiple regression), it was observed that 82.7% of the total variability of length of hospital stay until discharge was explained by the variables: “Classification,” “Antibiotic therapy,” “Discharge weight/birthweight ratio,” “Parenteral nutrition time,” “Day of life when neonate started enteral nutrition,” and “Day of life when neonate reached full salubrinal diet.”

Thirty eight men and women systolic blood pressure

: Thirty eight men and women (systolic blood pressure, SBP 120 – 139 mmHg) were recruited to a randomised controlled cross-over trial. Effects of 7 days high nitrate diet (nitrate intake > 300 mg/day from green leafy vegetables) on salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite, ambulatory, home and office blood pressure, augmentation index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were compared to 7 days low nitrate diet. In 19 volunteers, randomised to high nitrate in first intervention period, time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days high nitrate diet was determined.
: High nitrate diet resulted in a more than fourfold increase in salivary and plasma nitrate (both by 650%, < 0.001) and nitrite (by 680% and 385% respectively, < 0.001). These decreased rapidly, returning to baseline by day 7 post the high nitrate diet. Ambulatory, home and office blood pressure and arterial stiffness were not different between 2 diets. : Increasing dietary nitrate intake in those with high normal blood pressure may not be an effective short-term strategy to lower blood pressure in those at increased risk of hypertension. : NHMRC.
: Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) is recognised as being fundamental to vascular health. A second Ion Channel Compound Library to NO – the exogenous nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway – is also an important contributor to circulating NO. Dietary nitrate, as well as nitrate derived from oxidation of endothelial-derived NO enters this metabolic pathway and contributes to the NO pool. A critical step in this pathway is the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by oral bacteria on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Therefore, we aimed to determine if use of an antibacterial mouthwash interrupts nitrate reduction and thereby leads to elevated blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals.
: Fifteen treated hypertensive men and women were recruited to a randomised controlled cross-over trial. Effects of 3 days (twice daily) use of antibacterial mouthwash on oral nitrate to nitrite reduction, salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite, and blood pressure were compared to control (water).
: Relative to control, 3-day antibacterial mouthwash use resulted in decreased oral nitrate to nitrite reduction ( = 0.02), decreased salivary nitrite ( = 0.01) and increased salivary nitrate ( < 0.001). Plasma nitrate concentrations were not significantly reduced ( = 0.09). Use of antibacterial mouthwash over 3 days also resulted in higher systolic (2.3 mmHg; 95%CI: 0.5, 4.0; = 0.01) but not diastolic blood pressure ( = 0.4), relative to control. : Use of antibacterial mouthwash interrupts the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by oral bacteria. This has the potential to detrimentally impact on blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals, who are already at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. : NHMRC.
: The association between dairy food consumption and blood pressure (BP) remains unclear. This study investigated dairy consumption and BP among adolescents.
: The Sydney Childhood Eye Study included 2,352 participants in 2004-05, and 1216 participants in 2009-11, aged 12 and 17 year respectively. Longitudinal analyses included 888 adolescents who had complete diet and BP data at both time points. Diet was assessed using 121-item food frequency questionnaire, and BP was measured. Linear regression models were used to estimate slopes between dairy consumption and BP, after adjusting for multiple confounding variables, including age, sex, ethnicity, change in energy intake between 12 and 17 years, parental qualifications, parental history of hypertension, baseline height and BP, change in BMI, time spent in physical activity and screen viewing. Interactions existed between sex and change in total dairy and BP, and analyses were subsequently stratified by sex.
: At baseline, girls were consuming an average of 1.5 serves of dairy, including 0.3 serves of cheese per day. In girls, after multivariate adjustment, for each serve/day increase in total dairy intake there was a concurrent decrease in diastolic and arterial BP (1.04 mmHg, = 0.033 and 1.10 mmHg, = 0.02, respectively). In girls, for each increase serve/day of cheese over Ion Channel Compound Library the 5 years, there was a concurrent decrease in systolic, diastolic and arterial BP (7.18 mmHg, = 0.001; 5.28 mmHg, = 0.002; 5.79 mmHg, = 0.001). No association was observed in boys.

br Mathematical formulation Consider a three dimensional steady incompressible flow

Mathematical formulation
Consider a three-dimensional, steady, incompressible flow of a Casson fluid over a stretching sheet. It is considered that the sheet is stretched along -plane while fluid is placed along the -axis. It is assumed that induced magnetic field is negligible. Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are taken into account. Here, we assumed that the sheet has stretched with the linear velocities and along the -plane, respectively, with constants and (see Fig. 1). Moreover, it is considered that a constant magnetic field is applying normal to the fluid flow. The heat and mass transfer process is taken in to account. The rheological equation of state for an isotropic flow of a Casson fluid can be expressed as follows: In the above equation and denotes th component of the deformation rate, be the product of the component of deformation rate itself, be critical value of this product based on the non-Newtonian model, be the plastic dynamic viscosity of the Casson fluid and be the yield stress of the fluid.
The equation of continuity, momentum, energy and mass transfer are as follows: where and are the velocity components in the and -direction, respectively, is the Casson fluid parameter, is the magnetic induction, is the temperature, be the viscosity, is the permeability, is the density of the fluid, is the thermal conductivity of the fluid, is the ratio of the heat capacitances, and are the Brownian motion and thermophoretic lorcaserin buy online coefficients and is specific heat capacitance.
The associated boundary conditions of Eqs. (2)–(6) are as follows: In the above expression, and are stretching velocities in and directions, respectively. is the convective heat transfer coefficient, is the convective mass transfer coefficient and are the convective fluid temperature and concentration below the moving sheet.
Introducing the following similarity transformations Eq. (2) is automatically satisfied, and Eqs. (3)–(6) becomes The transformed boundary conditions are In the above expression is a magnetic parameter, is the porosity parameter, is Prandtl number, is the radiation parameter, is the Thermophoresis Parameter, is the Brownian motion parameter. are the Biot numbers and is the stretching parameter.
Expression for skin friction coefficient on the surface along the and -directions, which are denoted by and , respectively are as follows: where , and are the wall shear stress along and -directions, respectively. where is the local Reynolds number which depends on the stretching velocity .
The local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in non-dimensional form are given by

Method of solution
The coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equation (10)–(13) with respect to the boundary conditions (14) and (15) are solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique (Sandeep and Sulochana  [10]). The system of nonlinear ordinary differential equation  (10)–(13) with the boundary conditions (14) and (15) forms highly non-linear coupled differential equations. In order to solve these coupled non-linear differential equations we adopted bvp4c technique in Matlab package. We consider , . Eqs. (10)–(13) are transformed into systems of first order differential equations as follows:
Subject to the following initial conditions Here, we assumed some unspecified initial conditions in Eq. (20), Eq. (19) is then integrated numerically as an initial valued problem to a given terminal point. All these simplifications are done by using Matlab package.

Results and discussion
In order to get a physical insight into the problem, a parametric study is conducted on Newtonian and Casson fluids to illustrate the effects of different governing parameters viz., the Magnetic field parameter , Brownian motion parameter , Thermophoresis parameter , Biot numbers , stretching ratio parameter , on the nature of the flow, heat and mass transfer.
The non-dimensional velocities and , temperature, and concentration for different values of magneticfield parameter for both Newtonian and Casson fluids are shown in Figs. 2–5. It is evident that the velocities and declines with rise in magnetic parameter . But reverse results has been observed with an increase in the magneticfield parameter. The magnetic field opposes the rate of transportation. Generally, an increase in the magneticfield results a strong reduction in the dimensionless velocity. This is due to the fact that the magneticfield introduces a retarding body force known as Lorentz force. This happens because of the interaction of the magneticfield and electric fields for the motion of an electrically conducting fluid, and the stronger Lorentz force produces much more resistance to the transport phenomena. As the Lorentz force is a resistive force which opposes the fluid motion, so heat is produced and as a result, the thermal boundary layer thickness and concentration (volume fraction) boundary layer thickness become thicker for stronger magnetic field.