br Al narrar su Oviedo

Al narrar su Oviedo se refiere tanto al juego de palón de los gentileshombres en Lombardía y en Nápoles, Italia, como al juego del batey de los indios de las Antillas, específicamente en La Española, hoy República Dominicana y Haití; nos describe cuando observó que jugaron multidrug resistance transporter la pelota. Registra que el juego de uno y de otro son diferentes, en tanto busca paralelos y analogías, establece semejanzas y los contrasta. Sin figurar como preámbulo a la descripción del juego que vio en las Antillas, el cual registra minuciosamente —características de la pelota y cómo se golpea, las reglas del juego y el lugar donde se juega, quiénes juegan y cómo visten—, Oviedo menciona el juego de los italianos sin ahondar al respecto. Al escribir su observación acerca del juego que realizaban los habitantes de las islas antillanas, evoca que observó muchas veces el juego que practicaba la nobleza italiana; es pertinente razonar lo anterior al preguntarnos primeramente qué juego es el que presenció en Italia, para reflexionar de tal modo en qué medida mucho de lo que dice y de cómo representa el juego de pelota americano está íntimamente ligado a la cultura occidental y es propio a la historia de Europa del siglo xvi y a sus juegos, en tanto que indagar en qué forma o qué características del juego de los americanos que describe se parecen al juego italiano.
Son relevantes las reminiscencias de Italia de Oviedo: los recuerdos personales de donde pasó tres o cuatro años antes de trasladarse a las Antillas y a la Tierra Firme. Entre 1499 y 1502 viajó por la región, conoció Génova y el valle del Po, donde estuvo al servicio del duque de Mantua, Giovanni Francesco iii, y en la corte de Ludovico el Moro, duque de Milán. De ahí pasó a la corte de Isabella Gonzaga en Mantua y se sumó posteriormente al séquito del cardenal Giovanni Borgia Lanzol, y de regreso a Milán viajó a Turín, Pavía, Ferrara y Bolonia. También conoció Roma en tiempo del papa Alejandro VI y permaneció en el reino de Nápoles por una temporada, en la corte de Federico de Aragón y su hijo el príncipe Fernando, para viajar eventualmente a Palermo, pasar a Sicilia al derrumbarse la dinastía aragonesa, y volver a España donde vivió poco más de una década antes de partir en 1513 a macronutrients tierras americanas (: 161-162, 171-173, 219).
El juego en Europa
Especulo que el juego que Oviedo presenció en Italia y que mayormente compara con el juego de pelota que presenció en las Antillas es aquel conocido en Italia como pallone o calcio —denominación que se ha adoptado hasta hoy día— y en Francia (Mehl 1990: 71-75, 180-181; Vigarello 2002: 38-55) e Inglaterra como soule, una práctica muy importante a lo largo del Renacimiento en Europa. Se juega con una “pelota muy gruesa; tan grande como una botija de arroba á mayor; … balón o palón”, llena de viento que se golpea con el pie. Se practica en lugares espaciosos, en las plazas, en la calle delimitada por construcciones o en corredores largos, por dos equipos de 27 jugadores cada uno que se colocan cara a cara en disposición piramidal. El propósito del juego es impulsar con el pie la pelota inflada hacia los extremos del espacio de la cancha del equipo adversario (Bredekamp 1995: 8-17).
Los documentos registran dónde y cuándo se jugaba al calcio. Ya en 1470 se practicaba en Florencia en la Piazza di Santo Spirito, o bien entre el Ponte Vecchio y la Santa Trinitá, así como también sobre las aguas congeladas del río Arno en el invierno de 1491, en tanto que pone en evidencia el interés de miembros de la aristocracia y la nobleza por el juego. Piero di Medici jugaba calcio en 1492 y era muy aficionado, en tanto que el duque Galleazo Maria Sforza hace llevar a jugadores de Milán, donde reside la corte de Ludovico el Moro. Pese a que es prohibido por Savonarola por ser un “divertimiento lúdico”, el juego se continúa practicando en Florencia y en otras regiones a lo largo de las siguientes décadas. Por ejemplo, en 1511 se vuelve a tener la oportunidad de jugar al calcio en el río Arno otra vez congelado, y en 1530 se lleva a cabo un juego en la Piazza di Santa Croce. Entre estas fechas se jugaron varios partidos de calcio; uno fue singular ya que se presentó en 1521 en el Vaticano, en tiempos del papa Leo X (1513 a 1521), en el Patio del Belvedere (Bredekamp 1995: 33-58, 195-197), un gran espacio que cumple con las exigencias de un juego que, si bien requiere de una demarcación espacial que lo prescribe para su desarrollo, no se trata de una instalación o edificio construido para jugar a la pelota.

How can we reflect on the issues

How can we reflect on the issues we face today? For instance, who will take up the case of the bullet train and say whether it Nanaomycin A is the right thing for India or not? What else could the possibility entail? We leave it to a politician to design a dream, but that dream is only a wish, there are no details in it. When the multinational groups are consulted, they say “Look at Germany: do the same in India.” Is that going to work? Can you imagine the self-driving Google car in Ahmedabad? I\’m not challenging India\’s ability to do it, but look at our chaotic traffic conditions: there is a long way to go. So, is X the way forward, or is there another way? When considering advanced technology, intermediate technology, and appropriate technologies (these terms have all been used since the 70s, 80s and 90s) where should we go? How should we grow forward? We also need to understand the ethical parameters; we also need to change a whole host of laws and attitudes in society. M.P. Ranjan: There are Design PhD programs at IIT Bombay, Guwahati, Srishti, NID, CEPT and Ambedkar University. IIT Hyderabad is starting a massive PhD program. Other art colleges have also started to offer PhD programs. Yet because there have been no design schools offering a PhD until recently, designers that wanted to enter academics in a formal way were compelled to enter any old program: anthropology, sociology, technology and other PhD programs. They were trained to put their questions in a way that would fit into those programs, but these were design-related people whose intention was to come back to design. I don\’t think that was such a productive method. They may be qualified with a PhD but they haven\’t furthered the design agenda.
Someone has to do serious research on this. Another big design program is NIFT (National Institute of Fashion Technology). I helped to set up their Accessory Design program from 1993 to 1995. They have become the biggest school in the country for design, by virtue of their numbers. NIFT is government-owned and government-controlled. The campuses are of varying quality, as it has expanded very fast; some of them are terrible, but some have good people who are trying very hard. However, the climate that surrounds them is not favorable for design, in terms of their policy frameworks, etc. For instance, obtaining materials, determining the kind of studio exposure required, or time required to learn a certain activity, all of these are open to question: how long should one assume it takes to learn drawing? How long would you invest in that one activity?M.P. Ranjan: Yes, I think making publications more accessible via web would be of much more service than print. But such publications should be authenticated and peer-reviewed so they have credibility. Cost is important as well. But if there is vision, even print publication can be made accessible. Every school in the country can get books, if the government decides to make it so. But locking things away in a library is not the answer. We need to make publications accessible and available to students. When I do my course, I try to put my students in touch with the thought leaders directly. I think that result is paying off. They might not be talking to the very best people in the world, but they are talking to some very credible people with some very compelling, personal, direct knowledge. But the only thing is, how to find such people?
We have been fighting in a space with very limited money. And we have had to be more inventive about getting ahead.M.P. Ranjan: Your map of design is a worthwhile task. To this end, there are many design summits on record, so you can find out the topics, and learn about the speakers and what they do. You might also consult the journalists who have been covering design. For instance, the Economic Times ran the Design Summit this year in Bombay. Similarly, Mint is a Bombay journal that has been writing about design. Finally, there have been some large individual promoters—large families and industrialists—who have started investing in design because their family members were trained in design. Many of the younger generation sees design as a way forward, and I think this is going to change business in our country. At Godrej [a large industrial house] for instance, each of the owner family members has a foot in design. One went to IIT Chicago and then came back to build design at Godrej, focusing on developing new products for the bottom of the pyramid market. They have been bringing in IITC professors as their consultants. Godrej is a multi-vertical company, so they can go anywhere in the planet and get people, but I\’m not aware of any design school in India that is connecting with them. Similarly, in the Fisher group [a large retail chain], the younger generation is all connected to design. So that is good news for design in the country. But it happens because there are pressures from the outside pushing these companies into design. An example is the new design thinking platform for Infosys, who have announced that they have trained 70,000 engineers in design thinking. Indian industry is under tremendous pressure to put design into their products, because global competition is heating up.M.P. Ranjan: He is an amazing chap. I think that what Don Norman is doing with The Design Lab is an amazing thing. He is trying to get into a technological university and look at design as a big question, a really big question—and then try to evolve a new strategy and methodology for design, design thinking and design education. For him to be able to validate his work and be rigorous is a big challenge. I first met Don in 1995 at Apple, with my student who had won an award from Apple. And at that time, I gifted him my bamboo book. He gave me a signed copy of The Psychology of Everyday Things. We\’ve met a few times since then and have been in conversation on the PhD Design list.M.P. Ranjan: Ah, I can\’t come. I\’m totally tied up. I\’m in the process of shifting house, so it means I am busy packing things and organizing my books. There are thousands of books lying at home, some of which we have to get rid of. We\’ve been on campus for 15 years now and this is the first time we are moving out after a long time. I call it moving from the frying pan into the fire! So that is tomorrow. I\’ve been at NID since 1969! That\’s a good 45 years, so there are a lot of stories to be told.

We Gold et al and others Barch et al

We (Gold et al., 2013) and others (Barch et al., 2014; Fervaha et al., 2013) have shown that patients with high negative symptoms were less willing to expend effort for greater reward, suggesting that effort is either more aversive or that reward valuation is reduced, thereby decreasing the cost-reward ratio. The associations presented here between reward magnitude and negative symptoms support the reward devaluation explanation, i.e., reduced reward magnitude sensitivity would impair efficient effort allocation. Interestingly, the ability to accurately appraise prospects was related to general cognitive ability and may also be tied to OFC function, potentially offering a parallel account of decision making performance in patients. Notably, this order VX-765 was despite our attempts to minimize the influence of cognitive complexity on decision making, implicating more directly general cognitive ability order VX-765 and reward magnitude appraisal. Overall, these results are consistent with the idea that negative symptoms represent a failure to appropriately estimate and maintain future reward magnitude/utility, whether through concomitant general cognitive ability impairments or more specifically through OFC dysfunction.

Funding
This work was supported by National Institute of Mental Health (2R01MH080066-06A1); National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1090716 to MA); and the Department of Health Western Australia. The Authors have declared that there are no conflicts of interest in relation to the subject of this study.

Conflict of interest statement

Introduction
Working memory (WM) dysfunction in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) has been demonstrated across various sensory modalities (Fleming et al., 1997; Haenschel et al., 2007; Lee and Park, 2005). WM deficits have likewise been observed in the unaffected first-degree relatives of PSZ (Conklin et al., 2000; Park et al., 1995; Pirkola et al., 2005; Seidman et al., 2012), suggesting that WM impairment may represent an endophenotypic marker for schizophrenia (Gottesman and Gould, 2003; Haenschel and Linden, 2011).
In addition to WM performance deficits, related neurophysiological abnormalities have been demonstrated in PSZ and their unaffected relatives. Deficient early visual processes have been repeatedly observed in PSZ during WM tasks (Dias et al., 2011; Haenschel et al., 2007; Zhao et al., 2011), and related deficits have been observed in unaffected relatives V gene presumably carry genetic liability for the disorder (Yeap et al., 2006). Electrophysiological correlates of later cognition, including WM functions (Haenschel et al., 2007; Zhao et al., 2011), have likewise been shown to be abnormal in PSZ. Some abnormalities in later processes have similarly been reported in unaffected relatives (Lee et al., 2010; Sponheim et al., 2006). Recent work in WM has focused on the role of distracting stimuli in preventing efficient encoding which may compromise the amount or content of material in WM in PSZ (see Eich et al., 2014; Erickson et al., 2014). However, researchers have yet to understand the mechanisms linking these neural abnormalities to observed behavioral deficits during WM in PSZ and their unaffected relatives.

Methods

Results

Discussion
We administered a delayed response spatial WM task to PSZ, their first-degree biological relatives, and healthy controls during which we recorded EEG. We analyzed behavioral data and event-related neurophysiological responses in order to clarify the nature of spatial WM deficits in PSZ and their biological relatives (see Table 3 for a summary of findings). PSZ exhibited WM performance deficits and smaller neural responses as compared to controls. In particular, early posterior responses (N1) in PSZ recorded during retrieval failed to differentiate previously encoded locations while such responses in CTRL and REL varied depending on encoding status of the location.

further info The imaging study of present case showed a

The imaging study of present case showed a multilocular expansile lesion with a narrow transitional zone with the adjacent normal bone (Fig. 1C). The internal structure can be radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque depending on the degree of calcification and presence of cystic areas. Root displacement is common and resorption, though rare, can occur. The present case demonstrates resorption of the roots of second molar (Fig. 1C). The lesion can cause expansion as well as perforation. The radiographic features can resemble that of fibrous dysplasia and cemento-ossifying fibroma. JPOF is not capsulated but is separated from the surrounding bone by radiopaque borders, and this finding is helpful in differentiating it from fibrous dysplasia. A ground glass appearance is also reported. It usually has a centrifugal growth pattern, which can lead to an erroneous clinical diagnosis of cemento-ossifying fibroma.
The characteristic histologic feature is the presence of numerous small, round ossicles or “psammomatoid” bodies embedded in a cellular fibrous stroma. The ossicles are mineralized collagenous foci that vary from small, smoothly contoured round-to-oval patterns to larger, irregular shapes, with concentric layering like that of psammoma bodies. A marginal osteoid rim surrounds the ossicles. The ossicles have a thick irregular collagenous rim that may include multiple ossicles. The ossicles may fuse together to form trabeculae showing reversal lines. Sometimes, JPOF contains basophilic concentrically lamellated particles with irregular thread-like or thorn-like calcified strands in hyalinized background.
The present case was characterized by large cystic areas of ABC showing giant further info and osteoid formation. Development of the ABC in JPOF has been previously reported. It develops initially as a focal myxoid change in hemorrhagic stroma. Osteoclastic giant cells appear along with gradual expansion and formation of cysts having thin fibrous walls. The cysts tend to occur commonly in the younger patients in the first and second decades of life. Large aggressive maxillary lesions are commonly associated with ABC.
The aggressive nature of this entity with high rates of recurrence (30–56%) suggests that JPOF should be treated with surgical resection, rather than conservative curettage. Fatal consequences are extremely rare and are caused by complications arising from direct intracranial extension. Recurrence may be attributed to difficulty in proper resection caused by the location of the lesion and the infiltrative nature of the tumor borders. Complete resection results in no recurrence for a period of 6months to 7years or more than 7years.
There is no standardized follow-up protocol in the literature. Because of high recurrence rate, immediate reconstruction is not advised. Secondary reconstruction may be undertaken sooner for slow-growing lesions, and be delayed for fast-growing lesions. Although there are no cases of malignant transformation, rapidly growing lesions should raise suspicion and add a reason for delaying reconstruction.
The prognosis is good because malignant changes and metastases have not been reported. Radiotherapy is contraindicated because of the risk of malignant transformation and potential harmful late effects in children. Thus appropriate recommended treatment is aggressive surgical approach followed by clinical and radiological follow-up.

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgement

Introduction
Loss of teeth is mainly attributed to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Factors leading to tooth extraction are not however dental in origin. Edentulousness and a small number of remaining teeth are associated with low education level and family income. Edentulism is defined as the loss of all permanent teeth and is the treatment outcome of a multifactorial process involving biologic process (dental caries, periodontal disease, trauma and others) as well as non-biologic factors related to dental procedures (access to care, patient preferences). The prevalence and patterns of tooth loss have been studied to a certain extent in western countries and a few such studies have been carried out in India. Dental caries and periodontitis are caused by microorganisms but age, gender, oral hygiene and lifestyle (dietary habits, tobacco smoking, and alcohol intake) may modify the progression of these disorders. People have preferred extractions to conservative treatment due to long distance between home and dental services. The influence of socioeconomic and the socio-demographic factors on edentulousness has been well documented.

Crude lubricant is essentially has alkanes cycloalkanes

Crude lubricant is essentially has alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic alkanes, which establish nearly 50 to 80% of the oil composition. These ingredients are termed petrol hydrocarbons (Feng, 2004). Furthermore, above 230 hydrocarbons have been recognized in lubricant (Katsivela et al., 2005). As a significant source of energy, oil showed an essential role in manufacturing fabrication. Consequently, the 20th century was called the “oil century” (Sun, 2006).
It is well recognized that a lot of microorganisms are able to consume fuel hydrocarbons as a carbon source. Simultaneously, certain native microorganisms have progressively adjusted to the long-term oil polluted soil and established a greater municipal which able to use oil pollutants via distinctive substrate enrichment (Zhao et al., 2005; Mohammed et al., 2007). Consequently, biological cleanup of the polluted soil has a wide-ranging vision for the reason that its little budget, no secondary contamination, treating in situ (Alexander, 1994; Atlas and Cerniglia, 1995; Boonchan et al., 2000; Misshra and Jyot, 2001; Minai-Tehrani et al., 2009).
In recent times, bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil has been commonly described globally (Walworth et al., 2003; Daniel et al., 2007; Minai-Tehrani et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2010), which offers an orientation and management for improvement and useful application of biological remediation technologies. In the previous period, owing to the extensive usage of PCR and DNA sequencing, 16S rDNA sequencing has showed a fundamental role in the perfect proof of identity of the isolated bacteria and the finding of new bacteria in microbiological laboratories. The aim of this study was to ascertain isolated microbial strains from oil contaminated soils through molecular techniques using 16S rDNA sequence examination in conjunction with morphological, physiological and nadph oxidase inhibitor experiments. This was done by: isolation of the genomic DNA of the bacteria; amplifying the 16S rDNA gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR); automatic sequencing and identification of bacteria species examined based on the analysis of DNA sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database.

Materials and methods

Molecular identification
Total DNA of the isolated strains was extracted using bacterial DNA extraction kit (166-0003EDU Bio-Rad Laboratories LTD). The universal 16S rDNA primers (Linderman, 1998) 27 F 5′-AGAGtttGAtcAtGGctcAG-3′ and 1492 R 5′-tAcGGttAccttGttAcGActt-3′ were used for the PCR reaction. Analysis of the PCR amplified products was carried out on a 2% Agarose gel containing ethidium bromide at 0.5mg/ml. The obtained 16S rDNA fragments of strains were sequenced. The sequencing results were examined by Blast online comparison (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.eleen.top) for identification of the strains (Stach et al., 2001).

Hydrocarbon degradation

Results and discussion

Conclusions
Two bacterial strains were isolated from polluted soil from the eastern region, Dammam; Saudi Arabia. The isolates were identified as S. aureus (S1) and C. amycolatum (S2). In the biodegradation experiment, the tested bacterial strains showed better degradation ability toward hydrocarbons.

Acknowledgement
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group no. RGP-VPP 297.

Introduction
Heat, cold, drought and salinity are the major environmental stresses that cause severe problem in many areas of the world. The ever-increasing temperature is one of the limiting factors for plants growth and their yield, and also for geographical distributions of plants. In the coming century, plants will be affected adversely and become more vulnerable to increasing high ambient temperature due to anthropogenic activities that increase gases particularly carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxides. According to the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC), global average temperature will be increased between 1.8°C and 4°C in 2100 (Sánchez et al., 2014). The increasing rate depends on the level of greenhouse gases and can even be larger if the human population and global economy keeps growing at their current rate (Sánchez et al., 2014).

gsk3b inhibitor The frequency of use of behavior guidance techniques

The frequency of use of behavior guidance techniques for 5–7year-old uncooperative children is given in Fig. 5. About 89% of the respondents reported that they always used non-pharmacological behavior guidance for the management of 5–7year-old uncooperative children. When asked which is/was the specialized area/s in pediatric dentistry for which they require further training (continuing education/workshop), 71.8% of the respondents reported that they were very much interested in dental management of children with special health needs and 70.2% reported that they were very interested in oral sedation for pediatric dental patients.
The majority of the participants reported that they performed infant oral health education, guidance and treatment (n=78; 75.7%) and treated children with special health needs (n=93; 90.3%) in their practice. Among the participants who responded to the question regarding their interest in attending future scientific events (n=85), the topic of most interest for the majority was ‘dental management of children with special health needs’ (n=61; 71.8%), followed by ‘oral sedation for pediatric dentists’ (n=59; 70.2%) and ‘early orthodontic treatment’ (n=54; 65.8%).

Discussion
The prevention of dental caries gsk3b inhibitor and progression is one of the hallmarks of contemporary pediatric dental practice (Adair, 2006). The best predictors of dental caries in children are previous caries history, salivary Streptococcus mutans levels, prevalence of inadequate oral hygiene practices, deficient fluoride exposure, low socioeconomic status and familial caries pattern (Tinanoff, 1995). Among the many caries preventive dental programs developed by the dentists for their child patients such as patient education, diet modification, plaque control and sealant programs, perhaps none is as important and effective as the appropriate application of fluoride. In our study, all the surveyed dentists used fluorides in their dental practice, but the regimen of fluoride application was not enquired. We assume that the acceptable and approved baseline program of the combination of once or twice-yearly professional fluoride applications and twice-daily use of fluoride dentifrice for low caries-risk children is being followed. In addition, other fluoride regimens, such as systemic supplements, mouthrinses, and self-applied gels may be considered only after a thorough caries risk assessment (Adair, 2006). The current study did not address the issue of whether an individual dentist reported using more than one strategy for the prevention of caries. It is possible that the same individuals who reported that crossing-over would use the fluoride interventions in 100% of the cases could also always give dietary chart reviews and individualized preventive instructions to the patient, and vice versa.
About 92% of the participants in this study reported performing caries risk assessment. This result is consistent with that of the results of Riley et al. (2010) who studied dentists’ use of caries risk assessment among children and found that the majority of the surveyed dentists (75%) reported performing caries risk assessment. Furthermore, more-recent graduates were reportedly more likely to use caries risk assessment compared to older surveyed graduates. However, this aspect was not investigated in the present study.
dos Santos et al. (2011) investigated the inconsistencies in recommendations on oral hygiene practices for children by professional dental and pediatric organizations in ten countries and found that several of these recommendations showed discrepancies and only 11 systematic reviews addressed these recommendations. Dentists are ethically obliged to ensure that oral health education materials disseminated to the public are evidence-based (Watt, 2005). Lack of or poor scientific evidence may lead to conflicting health messages which restricts the practitioners from providing consistent evidence-based recommendations. This may, in turn, lead the practitioners to rely on tradition, experience or obsolete evidence (Straus et al., 2005). About 96% of the participants of this study reported that they gave individualized preventive instructions and procedures to the patients and 52% reported using printed or electronic dental education materials. Although these results may be considered encouraging, whether or not the individualized preventive instructions and procedures delivered to the patients or the contents of the printed or electronic dental education materials used are evidence-based needs to be investigated. This may be essential to ascertain that consistent and up-to-date preventive oral health care messages are disseminated to the patients.

br Materials and methods br

Materials and methods

Results
Table 1 summarizes the general characteristics of workplaces investigated based on the type of workplace, emitted or source of nanoparticles, ventilation type, processes or tasks, size of workplace, number of workers, and other possible sources. Two LABs were dealing with metal and one LAB handled graphene. Three ENPs manufactured metal nanoparticles and one also manufactured fumed silica. All UNP workplaces performed welding, and UNP-J also undertook smelting processes.

Discussion

Conclusions

Conflicts of interest

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency (2013-OSHRI-597); BK21 Plus project (No. 5280-20140100); the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea (2012-Nano R&D).

Introduction
Dry cleaning is predominantly a small business industry that consists of approximately 36,000 shops in the US [1]. Most of these shops employ one to four workers who are exposed to a variety of risk factors [2,3].
Exposure to awkward postures and repetitive motions for prolonged periods can lead to a variety of potentially disabling injuries and disorders of musculoskeletal tissues and/or peripheral ampk inhibitor [4]. Ergonomic stressors in the dry-cleaning industry are visible among workers performing pressing operations, which are dynamic and repetitive tasks requiring reaching, precision gripping, maintenance of awkward postures, and long standing [5–8].
Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) incidence rate was 80.5 cases per 10,000 full-time workers (FTW) for laundry and dry-cleaning workers in the US in 2011, which was quite higher than that (38.5 cases per 10,000 FTW) for all occupations [9]. In 2014, compared with the incidence rates of carpal tunnel syndrome (0.7 cases per 10,000 FTW) and tendonitis (0.2 cases per 10,000 FTW) for all occupations in the country, those rates for laundry and dry-cleaning workers were 5.7 and 7 times higher, respectively [10], indicating that MSDs of pressing operation workers have drawn attention to the dry-cleaning industry.
There was an effort to characterize exposure to MSD risk factors in the pressing operations of several dry-cleaning shops in the early of 2000s [6]. The effort was made because, despite high incidence rates of MSDs for the laundry and dry-cleaning workers, there was, even today, little scientific documentation of ergonomic hazard analyses in the dry-cleaning sector. In fact, the incidence rate of injuries and illnesses was also higher in the laundry, cleaning, and garment services sector than that in private industry of the US in 2000 [11]. In this regard, it is likely desirable to document and inform the effort work performed in the dry-cleaning shops.

Methods

Results

Discussion
One MSD hazard was finally determined in the caution zone job where the MSD hazard criterion was exceeded by the job as specified in the HZ Checklist. The “MSD hazard” was the awkward shoulder posture which was prevalent over the three facilities. Reaching above shoulder level and highly repetitive arm motions frequently occurred in the observed dry-cleaning shops during the hanging and pressing of garments. In detailed analysis for awkward postures of the shoulders, each of two median frequencies exceeded its criterion in the HZ Checklist while the duration of exposure to awkward shoulder postures was more than 4 hours in total per workday. Frequent or sustained awkward shoulder postures, combined with iron weight, can pose a risk of biomechanical stress to the joints of the upper extremities and surrounding soft tissues [4,7,19]. It is necessary to control the identified MSD hazard below the criterion, through ergonomic interventions such as employee training, improvement of workstation design, and work condition, at their own shops [7,12,21].
In the detailed analysis for repetitive ironing motions, each of the median frequencies did not exceed its criterion whereas the total duration of ironing motions (245 minutes) exceeded the criterion, implying that, under the WA Rule, the job might not be hazardous in terms of ironing motion activities. However, repetitiveness has been defined in various ways. For example, “high repetitive jobs” were defined as those with a work cycle time of less than 30 seconds, or more than 50% of the cycle time involved performing the same kind of fundamental cycles [22]. Criteria for “high repetitive” of more than 10 movements/min for the upper arm/elbow and forearm/wrist body regions, and more than 2.5 movements/min for the shoulders, have been recommended by Kilbom [23]. The repetitive ironing motion of the worker\’s pressing operation was “highly repetitive” for the shoulders because the ironing motion accounted for over 50% of the total cycle time, and also its median frequency of the ironing motions exceeded 2.5 movements/min. No work exceeded the recommended guideline for upper arm/elbow and forearm/wrist body regions. In this regard, it is recognized that the MSD hazard candidate of repetitive motions would have been underestimated by the HZ Checklist, which supports Eppes\’s finding that the hazard zone criteria reflect a low sensitivity and a low specificity [16].

br Acknowledgment This research work has been supported

Acknowledgment
This research work has been supported financially by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, based on contract number 2/19730.

Introduction
Nowadays, the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has become a useful tool for direct measurements of intermolecular forces with atomic precision. This microscope can be used in various fields such as electronics, semiconductors, manufacturing, polymeric materials, bio-analysis, biomaterials, and in the study of metal surfaces [1]. AFM is a powerful tool for nano-level evaluation, biomaterials diagnosis, nano description of materials and equipments, and assembly prostaglandin synthase at nano-scale [2–4]. AFM is composed of a MC with a probe of a very fine tip, by which the information from the sample and tip interaction can be obtained. Recently, a new generation of MCs has been developed for AFM imaging [5–7]. These types of MC are equipped with a piezoelectric layer that can be used for actuation, sensing, and actuation-sensing, simultaneously. The advantages of piezoelectric MCs compared with bulky piezotube actuators, has made them an appropriate choice for high-speed imaging of AFM [6]. Other advantages of this type of MC are compacting AFM, when the MC is used as a sensor, and the possibility of using multiple probes in parallel functions [8]. The topographical image of the surface can be measured in AFM by quantifying and recording the cantilever deformation. This measurement is typically conducted by a high precision laser interferometer. Although this method of measurement enjoys high accuracy, it is massive and expensive. Therefore, compact and inexpensive methods are preferred. There are different methods of measurement which can be introduced as substitutes for the laser interferometer in AFM, including capacitive [9], conductive [10], piezoelectric [5–7]and piezoresistive [11–13]. The capacitive and conductive methods can be used only for conductive materials, and the piezoelectric prostaglandin synthase is an appropriate method for amplitude mode. In this method, the piezoelectric layers are used as actuator and sensor. Due to the reverse effects of piezoelectric materials caused by the AC current, the cantilever will be vibrated and, along with the deformation emanating from the direct effect of piezoelectric materials, a charge will be generated in this layer which can be used to measure the amount of cantilever deformation.
Itoh and Suga [5] presented a piezoelectric MC for determination of force gradients as self-sensing and self-actuating. Adams et al. [7] presented a simple electrical circuit to make possible the commercial use of piezoelectric MCs as a self-sensing mode in AFM tapping mode. Lee et al. [14,15] introduced a microcantilever with a PZT piezoelectric layer in order to be used in the AFM in dynamic mode, and employed it as three building blocks of AFM, namely, microcantilever, actuator and deformation sensor. They then succeeded in capturing high-contrast images from the selected sample in the amplitude mode. Mahmoodi et al. [16,17] theoretically investigated the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric MC in the absence of the sample force for non-AFM applications using the theory of nonlinear uniform beam and compared the flexural responses with experimental results. Fung and Huang [18] simulated the piezoelectric microcantilever using the finite element method. Typically, a piezoelectric MC is constituted from a sandwiched piezoelectric layer between two electrodes on its surface, whose layer does not necessarily cover the entire MC surface. In the common configuration of this kind of MC [5,19], the main body of the MC is designed wider due to the presence of the piezoelectric layer, while the tip region is manufactured narrower in order to improve the measurement of tip deformation. Therefore, a piezoelectric MC is constituted from three segments in its cross section: the first step is the wide region of MC, which includes the piezoelectric and the electrodes, the second step is the wide region of the MC without the piezoelectricm and the third step is the tip region. These discontinuities change the modal characteristics of the beam compared with a uniform beam and have a dramatic impact on it. Hence, in order to raise computational precision, the non-uniform beam method must be used in the analysis.

br Ordinal logistic profiles monitoring Consider observations in the th

Ordinal logistic profiles monitoring
Consider observations in the th sample where, refers to the th level of the explanatory variable, shows the th level of the response variable and denotes the th profile collected over the time. When the process is in statistical control, the profile can be modelled as: where and are known parameters and are fixed values of the explanatory variable.

Case studies

Conclusions
This paper discusses four different methods for monitoring polytomous profiles in phase II. In industries where the response variable is ordinal, these methods can provide a mechanism for improving processes. In this study, we considered two cases of customer satisfaction, and a sensory measurement for the odour emission of a livestock farm building, and evaluated the performances of the four proposed methods. The results indicate satisfactory performances for the four approaches, with the MEWMA method preferred for small shifts. Moreover, it opioid receptor is indicated that MEWMA and methods are sensitive to sample size, while EWMA/R and are more robust to and provide the same results for different .

Introduction
In the past, researchers have used some optimization techniques such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and particle swarm optimization, etc. to optimize both single and multi-pass turning operation problems. Chua et al.  [1] used a sequential quadratic programming technique for optimising the cutting conditions for multi-pass turning operations. Gopalakrishnan and Faiz  [2] used the analytical approach of geometric programming to handle the constrained problem of the turning process. Shin and Joo  [3] proposed a mathematical model for the multi-pass turning process, which was subsequently used by many researchers.
A feed-forward neural network was used by Wang  [4] for solving the multi-objective problem, which involved productivity, operation cost and cutting quality. Gupta et al.  [5] worked on the optimality of depth of cut of the multi-pass turning operation using an integer programming model. Chen and Tsai  [6] applied the simulated annealing approach to solve the optimization problem for minimum unit production costs of the multi-pass turning process.
Kee  [7] outlined the optimisation strategies for multi-pass rough turning on conventional and CNC lathes with practical constraints, such as force and power. Prasad et al.  [8] combined geometric and linear programming techniques for determining the machining parameters by involving the tolerance and workpiece rigidity constraints. The Taguchi method was used by Yang and Tarng  [9], whereas Nian et al.  [10] carried out the optimization of turning operations based on the Taguchi method and considered various multiple performance characteristics, such as tool life, cutting force, and surface finish. Alberti and Perrone  [11] used the genetic algorithm to solve a fuzzy probabilistic optimization model for determining the cutting parameters. Arezoo et al.  [12] developed an expert system to select cutting tools and conditions of turning operations using Prolog. The system can select the tool holder, and the insert and cutting conditions, such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Dynamic programming was used to optimize the cutting conditions. Dereli et al.  [13] developed an optimization system for cutting parameters of prismatic parts based on genetic algorithms.
Onwubolu and Kumalo  [14] used the mathematical model of Chen and Tsai  [6] and applied the genetic algorithm to minimize the unit production cost. They showed Malpighian tubules the genetic algorithm had given better results than simulated annealing. However, subsequently Chen and Chen  [15] proved that the result of Onwubolu and Kumalo  [14] was invalid, due to incorrect handling of the mathematical model. Al-Ahmari  [16] presented a nonlinear programming model for the optimization of machining parameters and subdivisions of the depth of cut in multi-pass turning operations. Wang et al.  [17] used the genetic algorithm to select optimal cutting parameters and cutting tools in multi-pass turning operations with more focus on the tool wear and chip breakability aspects of the process.

Assessing the knowledge behaviors and experiences of community

Assessing the knowledge, behaviors and experiences of amyloid pharmacists relating to spontaneous reporting of ADRs is very important. When pharmacists have sufficient knowledge of the ADR reporting process, they can improve other healthcare professionals’ knowledge about ADR reporting (Khalili et al., 2012). In Saudi Arabia, studies conducted to assess pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences relating to ADR reporting are limited (Bawazir, 2006) and were conducted before the establishment of the National Pharmacovigilance Centre. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to assess the knowledge, behaviors and experiences of community pharmacists regarding the reporting of ADRs.

Methods

Results
The survey was distributed to 147 pharmacists; however only 104 surveys were collected, giving a response rate of 70.7%. The mean age of the participants was 29±3.9years. Community pharmacists in this study were predominantly graduated from Egypt (n=80, 79.4%) and most (n=101, 98.1%) had completed their bachelorette degree (Table 1). The majority of participants were employed in chain community pharmacies (n=68, 66.7%).

Discussion
Several previous studies have documented a lack of knowledge in community pharmacists about ADR reporting similar to our findings. The rate of ADR reporting by pharmacists in various countries has been reported to vary from 3% to 14.7% (Oreagba et al., 2011; Su et al., 2010; Vessal et al., 2009; Toklu and Uysal, 2008; Lee et al., 1994). A previous study from Saudi Arabia reported a lower level of awareness about the process of ADR reporting compared to our findings (13.2% vs. 22%) Bawazir, 2006. Regarding knowledge about where ADRs can be submitted, most pharmacists claimed that they had submitted ADRs to the Ministry of Health and SFDA. In the study by Bawazir, 2006, the majority of pharmacists surveyed claimed that they had submitted ADRs to both the pharmaceutical company and the Ministry of Health. One of the most serious barriers to reporting ADRs identified in this study is that pharmacists do not take responsibility for reporting. Previous studies had shown that pharmacists can make a major positive contribution to the quality and number of ADRs reported (Kees et al., 2004; Gedde-Dahl et al., 2007; Khalili et al., 2012).
Although there is a reporting system in Saudi Arabia that deals with ADRs in both paper and electronic format, the majority of community pharmacists are unaware of where and how to report ADRs. Community pharmacists believe that ADR reporting is the responsibility of physicians and hospital pharmacists. A computer and access to an internet connection should be available in all community pharmacies to help the pharmacist report ADRs online. Pharmacovigilance authorities in Saudi Arabia should utilize interventional programs that have been shown to increase the knowledge and awareness of ADR reporting in other countries (Gedde-Dahl et al., 2007; Granas et al., 2007; Sevene et al., 2008; Irujo et al., 2007). Involvement of pharmacy students in community pharmacy internships may increase the awareness of future pharmacists regarding ADR detection and reporting (Christensen et al., 2011). In addition, training programs in pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting may also help to minimize the rate of underreporting.

Introduction
Pregnancy is a special physiological state where medication intake presents a challenge and a concern due to altered drug pharmacokinetics and drug crossing the placenta possibly causing harm to the foetus (Banhidy et al., 2005). Medication treatment in pregnancy cannot be totally avoided since some pregnant women may have chronic pathological conditions that require continuous or interrupted treatment (e.g. asthma, epilepsy, and hypertension). Also during pregnancy new medical conditions can develop and old ones can worsen (e.g. migraine, headache, hyperacidity, nausea and vomiting) requiring drug therapy (Deborah et al., 2005). So it becomes a major concern for pregnant women to take medication whether prescription, over-the counter, or herbal medication. Since the thalidomide era, there has been great awareness about harmful effects of medications on the unborn child (Kacew, 1994; Melton, 1995). It has been documented that congenital abnormalities caused by human teratogenic drugs account for less than 1% of total congenital abnormalities (Sachdeva et al., 2009). Hence in 1979, Food and Drug Administration developed a system that determines the teratogenic risk of drugs by considering the quality of data from animal and human studies (Sachdeva et al., 2009). FDA classifies various drugs used in pregnancy into five categories, categories A, B, C, D and X. Category A is considered the safest category and category X is absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy (FDA, 2005). This provides therapeutic guidance for the clinician.